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      Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis

      Hormone Research in Paediatrics

      S. Karger AG

      Bisphosphonates, Glucocorticoids, Osteoporosis, Fracture, Bone mineral density

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          Abstract

          Osteoporosis is a common and serious complication of glucocorticoid therapy, resulting in increased risk of fragility fractures. Recent studies indicate that fracture risk is increased even at low doses of glucocorticoids and that this increased risk is seen soon after the commencement of glucocorticoid therapy. Both increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation contribute to bone loss, which affects cortical and cancellous sites. A number of interventions have been shown to prevent glucocorticoid-induced bone loss, although the strongest evidence exists for the bisphosphonates etidronate, alendronate and risedronate. Primary prevention of bone loss should be considered in all high-risk individuals taking oral glucocorticoids for 3 months or more, for example those aged 65 years or over or those with a previous fragility fracture. In other glucocorticoid-treated individuals, the decision to treat should be based on bone densitometry.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Intermittent etidronate therapy to prevent corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis.

          Osteoporosis is a recognized complication of corticosteroid therapy. Whether it can be prevented is not known. We conducted a 12-month, randomized, placebo-controlled study of intermittent etidronate (400 mg per day for 14 days) followed by calcium (500 mg per day for 76 days), given for four cycles, in 141 men and women (age, 19 to 87 years) who had recently begun high-dose corticosteroid therapy. The primary outcome measure was the difference in the change in the bone density of the lumbar spine between the groups from base line to week 52. Secondary measures included changes in the bone density of the femoral neck, trochanter, and radius and the rate of new vertebral fractures. The mean (+/-SE) bone density of the lumbar spine and trochanter in the etidronate group increased 0.61 +/- 0.54 and 1.46 +/- 0.67 percent, respectively, as compared with decreases of 3.23 +/- 0.60 and 2.74 +/- 0.66 percent, respectively, in the placebo group. The mean differences between the groups after one year were 3.72 +/- 0.88 percentage points for the lumbar spine (P = 0.02) and 4.14 +/- 0.94 percentage points for the trochanter (P = 0.02). The changes in the femoral neck and the radius were not significantly different between the groups. There was an 85 percent reduction in the proportion of postmenopausal woman with new vertebral fractures in the etidronate group as compared with the placebo group (1 of 31 patients vs. 7 of 32 patients, P = 0.05), and the etidronate-treated postmenopausal women also had significantly fewer vertebral fractures per patient (P = 0.04). Intermittent etidronate therapy prevents the loss of vertebral and trochanteric bone in corticosteroid-treated patients.
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            Inhaled corticosteroid use and bone-mineral density in patients with asthma.

            Inhaled corticosteroids are absorbed into the systemic circulation, but the extent to which they have adverse effects on bone is uncertain. The question is important since 3% of the European population take an inhaled corticosteroid regularly and may do so for many years. We studied the dose-response relation between cumulative inhaled corticosteroid dose and bone-mineral density at the lumbar spine and proximal femur in 196 adults (119 women) with asthma aged 20-40 years. Patients had taken an inhaled corticosteroid regularly for at least 6 months, and had had limited exposure to systemic steroids. Cumulative dose of inhaled corticosteroid was calculated from questionnaires and computerised and written general-practice records, and its effect on bone-mineral density was estimated by multiple regression analysis. Median duration of inhaled corticosteroid treatment was 6 years (range 0.5-24), and median cumulative dose was 876 mg (87-4380). There was a negative association between cumulative dose of inhaled corticosteroid and bone-mineral density at the lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter, both before and after adjustment for the effects of age and sex. A doubling in dose of inhaled corticosteroid was associated with a decrease in bone-mineral density at the lumbar spine of 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.04-0.28). Similar decreases were found at the femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter. Adjustment for potential confounding factors including physical activity and past oral, nasal, dermal, and parenteral corticosteroids did not weaken the associations. This study provides evidence of a negative relation between total cumulative dose of inhaled corticosteroid and bone-mineral density in patients with asthma.
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              Apoptosis of Osteocytes in Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteonecrosis of the Hip

               R S Weinstein (2000)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7687-1
                978-3-318-01053-4
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2003
                December 2003
                17 November 2004
                : 60
                : Suppl 3
                : 77-79
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK
                Article
                74506 Horm Res 2003;60(suppl 3):77–79
                10.1159/000074506
                14671402
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 17, Pages: 3
                Categories
                Skeletal Health

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