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      Antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa for COPD exacerbation in ICU: a 10-year retrospective study

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          Abstract

          Summary

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a frequent source of hospitalization. Antibiotics are largely prescribed during COPD exacerbation. Our hypothesis is that large broad-spectrum antibiotics are more and more frequently prescribed . Our results confirm this trend and highlight that the increase in large broad-spectrum use in COPD exacerbation is largely unexplained.

          Background

          Acute COPD exacerbation (AECOPD) is frequently due to respiratory tract infection, and the benefit of antipseudomonal antibiotics (APA) is still debated. Health care–associated pneumonia (HCAP) was defined in 2005 and requires broad-spectrum antibiotherapy. The main objectives are to describe the antibiotic use for AECOPD in intensive care unit and to identify factors associated with APA use and AECOPD prognosis.

          Methods

          We conducted a monocentric, retrospective study on all AECOPDs in the intensive care unit treated by antibiotics for respiratory tract infection. Treatment failure (TF) was defined by death, secondary need for mechanical ventilation, or secondary systemic steroid treatment. A multivariate analysis was used to assess factors associated with APA prescription and TF.

          Results

          From January 2000 to December 2011, 111 patients were included. Mean age was 69 years (±12), mean forced expiratory volume 38% of theoretic value (±13). Thirty-five (31%) patients were intubated, and 52 (47%) were treated with noninvasive ventilation. From 107 patients, 8 (7%) cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were documented. APAs were prescribed in 21% of patients before 2006 versus 57% after ( P=0.001). TF prevalence was 31%. Risk factors for P. aeruginosa in COPD and HCAP diagnosis did not influence APA, whereas the post-2006 period was independently associated with APA prescription (odds ratio 6.2; 95% confidence interval 1.9–20.3; P=0.0013). APA did not improve TF (odds ratio 1.09; 95% confidence interval 0.37–3.2).

          Conclusion

          HCAP guidelines were followed by an increase in APA use in AECOPD, without an improvement in prognosis. HCAP prevalence cannot account for the increasing APA trend. Time effect reveals a drift in practices. The microbiological effect of such a drift must be evaluated.

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          Most cited references 16

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          New strains of bacteria and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          The role of bacterial pathogens in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is controversial. In older studies, the rates of isolation of bacterial pathogens from sputum were the same during acute exacerbations and during stable disease. However, these studies did not differentiate among strains within a bacterial species and therefore could not detect changes in strains over time. We hypothesized that the acquisition of a new strain of a pathogenic bacterial species is associated with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We conducted a prospective study in which clinical information and sputum samples for culture were collected monthly and during exacerbations from 81 outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Molecular typing of sputum isolates of nonencapsulated Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was performed. Over a period of 56 months, the 81 patients made a total of 1975 clinic visits, 374 of which were made during exacerbations (mean, 2.1 per patient per year). On the basis of molecular typing, an exacerbation was diagnosed at 33.0 percent of the clinic visits that involved isolation of a new strain of a bacterial pathogen, as compared with 15.4 percent of visits at which no new strain was isolated (P<0.001; relative risk of an exacerbation, 2.15; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.83 to 2.53). Isolation of a new strain of H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, or S. pneumoniae was associated with a significantly increased risk of an exacerbation. The association between an exacerbation and the isolation of a new strain of a bacterial pathogen supports the causative role of bacteria in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Copyright 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Epidemiology and outcomes of health-care-associated pneumonia: results from a large US database of culture-positive pneumonia.

            Traditionally, pneumonia developing in patients outside the hospital is categorized as community acquired, even if these patients have been receiving health care in an outpatient facility. Accumulating evidence suggests that health-care-associated infections are distinct from those that are truly community acquired. To characterize the microbiology and outcomes among patients with culture-positive community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), health-care-associated pneumonia (HCAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective cohort study based on a large US inpatient database. A total of 4,543 patients with culture-positive pneumonia admitted into 59 US hospitals between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003, and recorded in a large, multi-institutional database of US acute-care hospitals (Cardinal Health-Atlas Research Database; Cardinal Health Clinical Knowledge Services; Marlborough, MA). Culture data (respiratory and blood), in-hospital mortality, length of hospital stay (LOS), and billed hospital charges. Approximately one half of hospitalized patients with pneumonia had CAP, and > 20% had HCAP. Staphylococcus aureus was a major pathogen in all pneumonia types, with its occurrence markedly higher in the non-CAP groups than in the CAP group. Mortality rates associated with HCAP (19.8%) and HAP (18.8%) were comparable (p > 0.05), and both were significantly higher than that for CAP (10%, all p < 0.0001) and lower than that for VAP (29.3%, all p < 0.0001). Mean LOS varied significantly with pneumonia category (in order of ascending values: CAP, HCAP, HAP, and VAP; all p < 0.0001). Similarly, mean hospital charge varied significantly with pneumonia category (in order of ascending value: CAP, HCAP, HAP, and VAP; all p < 0.0001). The present analysis justified HCAP as a new category of pneumonia. S aureus was a major pathogen of all pneumonias with higher rates in non-CAP pneumonias. Compared with CAP, non-CAP was associated with more severe disease, higher mortality rate, greater LOS, and increased cost.
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              Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: risk factors and clinical impact.

              Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading nosocomial pathogen, may become multidrug resistant (MDR). Its rate of occurrence, the individual risk factors among affected patients, and the clinical impact of infection are undetermined. We conducted an epidemiologic evaluation and molecular typing using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of 36 isolates for 82 patients with MDR P. aeruginosa and 82 controls matched by ward, length of hospital stay, and calendar time. A matched case-control study identified individual risk factors for having MDR P. aeruginosa, and a retrospective matched-cohort study examined clinical outcomes of such infections. The 36 isolates belonged to 12 PFGE clones. Two clones dominated, with one originating in an intensive care unit (ICU). Cases and controls had similar demographic characteristics and numbers of comorbid conditions. A multivariate model identified ICU stay, being bedridden, having high invasive devices scores, and being treated with broad-spectrum cephalosporins and with aminoglycosides as significant risk factors for isolating MDR P. aeruginosa. Having a malignant disease was a protective factor (odds ratio [OR] = 0.2; P = 0.03). MDR P. aeruginosa was associated with severe outcomes compared to controls, including increased mortality (OR = 4.4; P = 0.04), hospital stay (hazard ratio, 2; P = 0.001), and requirement for procedures (OR = 5.4; P = 0.001). The survivors functioned more poorly at discharge than the controls, and more of the survivors were discharged to rehabilitation centers or chronic care facilities. The epidemiology of MDR P. aeruginosa is complex. Critically ill patients that require intensive care and are treated with multiple antibiotic agents are at high risk. MDR P. aeruginosa infections are associated with severe adverse clinical outcomes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2015
                17 February 2015
                : 10
                : 379-388
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Réanimation Polyvalente, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France
                [2 ]Unité de Biostatistique Médicale, Hôpital Lyon Sud, Lyon, France
                [3 ]Service de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France
                [4 ]Service de Pneumologie et de Soins Intensifs, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Université Paris René Descartes, Paris, France
                [5 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Benjamin Planquette, Réanimation Polyvalente, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, 177 rue de Versailles, 78150 Le Chesnay, France, Tel +33 1 3963 8700, Fax +33 1 3963 8688, Email benjamin.planquette@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                copd-10-379
                10.2147/COPD.S71413
                4337514
                © 2015 Planquette et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                icu, antibiotics, pseudomonas aeurginosa, exacerbation, copd

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