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      Synthesis of architecturally well-defined nanogels via RAFT polymerization for potential bioapplications

      , ,
      Chemical Communications
      Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)

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          Hydrogels in regenerative medicine.

          Hydrogels, due to their unique biocompatibility, flexible methods of synthesis, range of constituents, and desirable physical characteristics, have been the material of choice for many applications in regenerative medicine. They can serve as scaffolds that provide structural integrity to tissue constructs, control drug and protein delivery to tissues and cultures, and serve as adhesives or barriers between tissue and material surfaces. In this work, the properties of hydrogels that are important for tissue engineering applications and the inherent material design constraints and challenges are discussed. Recent research involving several different hydrogels polymerized from a variety of synthetic and natural monomers using typical and novel synthetic methods are highlighted. Finally, special attention is given to the microfabrication techniques that are currently resulting in important advances in the field.
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            Hydrogel nanoparticles in drug delivery.

            Hydrogel nanoparticles have gained considerable attention in recent years as one of the most promising nanoparticulate drug delivery systems owing to their unique potentials via combining the characteristics of a hydrogel system (e.g., hydrophilicity and extremely high water content) with a nanoparticle (e.g., very small size). Several polymeric hydrogel nanoparticulate systems have been prepared and characterized in recent years, based on both natural and synthetic polymers, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Among the natural polymers, chitosan and alginate have been studied extensively for preparation of hydrogel nanoparticles and from synthetic group, hydrogel nanoparticles based on poly (vinyl alcohol), poly (ethylene oxide), poly (ethyleneimine), poly (vinyl pyrrolidone), and poly-N-isopropylacrylamide have been reported with different characteristics and features with respect to drug delivery. Regardless of the type of polymer used, the release mechanism of the loaded agent from hydrogel nanoparticles is complex, while resulting from three main vectors, i.e., drug diffusion, hydrogel matrix swelling, and chemical reactivity of the drug/matrix. Several crosslinking methods have been used in the way to form the hydrogel matix structures, which can be classified in two major groups of chemically- and physically-induced crosslinking.
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              Temperature-sensitive aqueous microgels.

              An account of the preparation and characterization of temperature-sensitive aqueous microgels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) was first published in 1986. Since then there has been a steady increase in the number of publications describing preparation, characterization and applications of temperature-sensitive microgels. This paper reviews the important developments in the area of temperature-sensitive aqueous microgels over the last decade. Although most of the work involves gels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), other polymers are also considered. Core-shell latex particles exhibiting temperature-sensitive properties are also described.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CHCOFS
                Chemical Communications
                Chem. Commun.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                1359-7345
                1364-548X
                2011
                2011
                : 47
                : 46
                : 12424
                Article
                10.1039/c1cc13955j
                a4896988-a8f8-4389-98c3-74b055726e62
                © 2011
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=c1cc13955j

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