+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Individually based measurement of temporal summation evoked by a noxious tonic heat paradigm

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          A model for measuring temporal summation (TS) by tonic noxious stimulation was recently proposed. However, methodological variations between studies make it difficult to reach a consensus regarding the way TS should be applied and calculated. The present study aimed to present a calculation method of TS magnitude produced by a tonic heat model in a large cohort of healthy subjects.


          Noxious heat stimulation (46.5°C/2 minutes) was applied to the forearm of 154 subjects who continuously rated pain intensity using a computerized visual analog scale. TS was calculated by “mean group” and “individual” approaches.


          A “typical” pattern of pain response, characterized by a peak pain followed by a decrease in intensity to a nadir and subsequently a progressive increase in pain scores, was exhibited by 86.4% of the subjects. Using the “mean group” and “individual” calculation approaches, the mean ± standard deviation magnitudes of TS were 31.4±27.5 and 41.0±26.0, respectively ( P<0.001). Additionally, using the individualized approach, we identified a different (“atypical”) response pattern among the rest of the subjects (13.6%).


          The results support the tonic heat model of TS for future utilization. The individualized TS calculation method seems advantageous since it better reflects individual magnitudes of TS.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 14

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Experimental and clinical applications of quantitative sensory testing applied to skin, muscles and viscera.

          Quantification of the human painful sensory experience is an essential step in the translation of knowledge from animal nociception to human pain. Translational models for assessment of pain are very important, as such models can be used in: 1) basic mechanistic studies in healthy volunteers; 2) clinical studies for diagnostic and monitoring purposes; 3) pharmacological studies to evaluate analgesic efficacy of new and existing compounds. Quantitative pain assessment, or quantitative sensory testing (QST), provides psychophysical methods that systematically document alterations and reorganization in nervous system function and, in particular, the nociceptive system. QST is defined as the determination of thresholds or stimulus response curves for sensory processing under normal and pathophysiological conditions. The modern concept of advanced QST for experimental pain assessment is a multimodality, multitissue approach where different pain modalities (thermal, mechanical, electrical, and chemical) are applied to different tissues (skin, muscles, and viscera) and the responses are assessed by psychophysical methods (thresholds and stimulus-response functions). Many new and advanced technologies have been developed to help relieve evoked, standardized, and painful reactions. Assessing pain has become a question of solving a multi-input, multi-output problem, with the solution providing the possibility of teasing out which pain pathways and mechanisms are involved, impaired, or affected. Many methodologies have been developed for quantitative assessment of pain perception and involved mechanisms. This paper describes the background for the different methods, the use in basic pain experiments on healthy volunteers, how they can be applied in drug profiling, and the applications in clinical practice.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Determinants of endogenous analgesia magnitude in a diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) paradigm: do conditioning stimulus painfulness, gender and personality variables matter?

            Descending modulation of pain can be demonstrated psychophysically by dual pain stimulation. This study evaluates in 31 healthy subjects the association between parameters of the conditioning stimulus, gender and personality, and the endogenous analgesia (EA) extent assessed by diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) paradigm. Contact heat pain was applied as the test stimulus to the non-dominant forearm, with stimulation temperature at a psychophysical intensity score of 60 on a 0-100 numerical pain scale. The conditioning stimulus was a 60s immersion of the dominant hand in cold (12, 15, 18 degrees C), hot (44 and 46.5 degrees C), or skin temperature (33 degrees C) water. The test stimulus was repeated on the non-dominant hand during the last 30s of the conditioning immersion. EA extent was calculated as the difference between pain scores of the two test stimuli. State and trait anxiety and pain catastrophizing scores were assessed prior to stimulation. EA was induced only for the pain-generating conditioning stimuli at 46.5 degrees C (p=0.011) and 12 degrees C (p=0.003). EA was independent of conditioning pain modality, or personality, but a significant gender effect was found, with greater EA response in males. Importantly, pain scores of the conditioning stimuli were not correlated with EA extent. The latter is based on both our study population, and on additional 82 patients, who participated in another study, in which EA was induced by immersion at 46.5 degrees C. DNIC testing, thus, seems to be relatively independent of the stimulation conditions, making it an easy to apply tool, suitable for wide range applications in pain psychophysics.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Physiological properties of unmyelinated fiber projection to the spinal cord.


                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                16 July 2015
                : 8
                : 409-415
                [1 ]Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel
                [2 ]Institute of Pain Medicine, Rambam Health Care Campus, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel
                [3 ]Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel
                [4 ]Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Erica Suzan, Institute of Pain Medicine, Rambam Health Care Campus, PO Box 9602, Haifa, 31096, Israel, Tel +972 4 854 1931, Fax +972 4 854 2880, Email erica.dol@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2015 Suzan et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                Comment on this article