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      Melatonin Enhances Palladium-Nanoparticle-Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in Human Lung Epithelial Adenocarcinoma Cells A549 and H1229

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          Abstract

          Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) are increasingly being used in medical and biological applications due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Recent evidence suggests that these nanoparticles can act as both a pro-oxidant and as an antioxidant. Melatonin (MLT), which also shows pro- and antioxidant properties, can enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents when combined with anticancer drugs. Nevertheless, studies regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of PdNPs and MLT in cancer cells are still lacking. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential toxicological and molecular mechanisms of PdNPs, MLT, and the combination of PdNPs with MLT in A549 lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells. We evaluated cell viability, cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis in cells treated with different concentrations of PdNPs and MLT. PdNPs and MLT induced cytotoxicity, which was confirmed by leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, increased intracellular protease, and reduced membrane integrity. Oxidative stress increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), protein carbonyl content (PCC), lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), and 8-isoprostane. Combining PdNPs with MLT elevated the levels of mitochondrial dysfunction by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP content, mitochondrial number, and expression levels of the main regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, PdNPs and MLT induced apoptosis and oxidative DNA damage due to accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OhdG), and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG). Finally, PdNPs and MLT increased mitochondrially mediated stress and apoptosis, which was confirmed by the increased expression levels of apoptotic genes. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the effects of combining PdNPs and MLT in human lung cancer cells. These findings provide valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in PdNP- and MLT-induced toxicity, and it may be that this combination therapy could be a potential effective therapeutic approach. This combination effect provides information to support the clinical evaluation of PdNPs and MLT as a suitable agents for lung cancer treatment, and the combined effect provides therapeutic value, as non-toxic concentrations of PdNPs and MLT are more effective, better tolerated, and show less adverse effects. Finally, this study suggests that MLT could be used as a supplement in nano-mediated combination therapies used to treat lung cancer.

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          Most cited references 113

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          Blinded by the Light: The Growing Complexity of p53.

          While the tumor suppressor functions of p53 have long been recognized, the contribution of p53 to numerous other aspects of disease and normal life is only now being appreciated. This burgeoning range of responses to p53 is reflected by an increasing variety of mechanisms through which p53 can function, although the ability to activate transcription remains key to p53's modus operandi. Control of p53's transcriptional activity is crucial for determining which p53 response is activated, a decision we must understand if we are to exploit efficiently the next generation of drugs that selectively activate or inhibit p53.
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            Dynamin-related protein Drp1 is required for mitochondrial division in mammalian cells.

            Mutations in the human dynamin-related protein Drp1 cause mitochondria to form perinuclear clusters. We show here that these mitochondrial clusters consist of highly interconnected mitochondrial tubules. The increased connectivity between mitochondria indicates that the balance between mitochondrial division and fusion is shifted toward fusion. Such a shift is consistent with a block in mitochondrial division. Immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation show that endogenous Drp1 is localized to mitochondria, which is also consistent with a role in mitochondrial division. A direct role in mitochondrial division is suggested by time-lapse photography of transfected cells, in which green fluorescent protein fused to Drp1 is concentrated in spots that mark actual mitochondrial division events. We find that purified human Drp1 can self-assemble into multimeric ring-like structures with dimensions similar to those of dynamin multimers. The structural and functional similarities between dynamin and Drp1 suggest that Drp1 wraps around the constriction points of dividing mitochondria, analogous to dynamin collars at the necks of budding vesicles. We conclude that Drp1 contributes to mitochondrial division in mammalian cells.
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              Free Radicals, Antioxidants in Disease and Health

              Free radicals and oxidants play a dual role as both toxic and beneficial compounds, since they can be either harmful or helpful to the body. They are produced either from normal cell metabolisms in situ or from external sources (pollution, cigarette smoke, radiation, medication). When an overload of free radicals cannot gradually be destroyed, their accumulation in the body generates a phenomenon called oxidative stress. This process plays a major part in the development of chronic and degenerative illness such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, aging, cataract, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The human body has several mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress by producing antioxidants, which are either naturally produced in situ, or externally supplied through foods and/or supplements. This mini-review deals with the taxonomy, the mechanisms of formation and catabolism of the free radicals, it examines their beneficial and deleterious effects on cellular activities, it highlights the potential role of the antioxidants in preventing and repairing damages caused by oxidative stress, and it discusses the antioxidant supplementation in health maintenance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                antioxidants
                Antioxidants
                MDPI
                2076-3921
                24 April 2020
                April 2020
                : 9
                : 4
                Affiliations
                Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea; muniyandij@ 123456yahoo.com (M.J.); pocachippo@ 123456gmail.com (M.-H.K.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: gsangiliyandi@ 123456yahoo.com (S.G.); jhkim541@ 123456konkuk.ac.kr (J.-H.K.); Tel.: +82-2-450-3687 (J.-H.K.); Fax: +82-2-544-4645 (J.-H.K.)
                Article
                antioxidants-09-00357
                10.3390/antiox9040357
                7222421
                32344592
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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