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      Regulation of Taurocholate Transport in Freshly Isolated Proximal Tubular Cells of the Rat Kidney by Protein Kinases

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          Background/Aims: The bile acids filtered through the glomeruli nearly completely escape urinary excretion due to an efficient tubular reabsorption process. Reabsorption is mediated mainly by the sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) which is located in the brush border membranes of proximal tubular cells. The present study addresses the question whether this transporter is subject to short-term regulation by protein kinases. Methods: The effects of specific activators or inhibitors of eight different protein kinases (PKs) on <sup>3</sup>H-taurocholate uptake of proximal tubular cells were investigated. The cells were freshly isolated from rat kidneys by nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. Results: Activation of the cAMP/PKA system by forskolin, 8-Br-cAMP, or the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine significantly diminished cellular <sup>3</sup>H-taurocholate uptake whereas 8-Br-cGMP had no effect. Also the MEK1/2 inhibitors PD98059 and U0126, and the p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor SB203580 decreased <sup>3</sup>H-taurocholate uptake. Phorbol myristate acetate and dioctanolglycerol, activators of PKC, and chelerythrine, a selective inhibitor of PKC, did not affect <sup>3</sup>H-taurocholate uptake. Likewise the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein induced no significant change of cellular <sup>3</sup>H-taurocholate uptake. In a sodium-free medium forskolin and PD98059 did not affect <sup>3</sup>H-taurocholate uptake but SB203580 significantly decreased it. Conclusion: It is concluded that PKA and MAP kinases are involved in the regulation of the ASBT-mediated taurocholate uptake into proximal tubular cells. p38 MAP kinase may have an additional effect on a sodium-independent tubular taurocholate transporter.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Specificity and mechanism of action of some commonly used protein kinase inhibitors.

          The specificities of 28 commercially available compounds reported to be relatively selective inhibitors of particular serine/threonine-specific protein kinases have been examined against a large panel of protein kinases. The compounds KT 5720, Rottlerin and quercetin were found to inhibit many protein kinases, sometimes much more potently than their presumed targets, and conclusions drawn from their use in cell-based experiments are likely to be erroneous. Ro 318220 and related bisindoylmaleimides, as well as H89, HA1077 and Y 27632, were more selective inhibitors, but still inhibited two or more protein kinases with similar potency. LY 294002 was found to inhibit casein kinase-2 with similar potency to phosphoinositide (phosphatidylinositol) 3-kinase. The compounds with the most impressive selectivity profiles were KN62, PD 98059, U0126, PD 184352, rapamycin, wortmannin, SB 203580 and SB 202190. U0126 and PD 184352, like PD 98059, were found to block the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in cell-based assays by preventing the activation of MAPK kinase (MKK1), and not by inhibiting MKK1 activity directly. Apart from rapamycin and PD 184352, even the most selective inhibitors affected at least one additional protein kinase. Our results demonstrate that the specificities of protein kinase inhibitors cannot be assessed simply by studying their effect on kinases that are closely related in primary structure. We propose guidelines for the use of protein kinase inhibitors in cell-based assays.
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            SB 203580 is a specific inhibitor of a MAP kinase homologue which is stimulated by cellular stresses and interleukin-1.

            A class of pyridinyl imidazoles inhibit the MAP kinase homologue, termed here reactivating kinase (RK) [Lee et al. (1994) Nature 372, 739-746]. We now show that one of these compounds (SB 203580) inhibits RK in vitro (IC50 = 0.6 microM), suppresses the activation of MAPKAP kinase-2 and prevents the phosphorylation of heat shock protein (HSP) 27 in response to interleukin-1, cellular stresses and bacterial endotoxin in vivo. These results establish that MAPKAP kinase-2 is a physiological RK substrate, and that HSP27 is phosphorylated by MAPKAP kinase-2 in vivo. The specificity of SB 203580 was indicated by its failure to inhibit 12 other protein kinases in vitro, and by its lack of effect on the activation of RK kinase and other MAP kinase cascades in vivo. We suggest that SB 203580 will be useful for identifying other physiological roles and targets of RK and MAPKAP kinase-2.
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              Rat cholangiocytes absorb bile acids at their apical domain via the ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter.

              Although bile acid transport by bile duct epithelial cells, or cholangiocytes, has been postulated, the details of this process remain unclear. Thus, we performed transport studies with [3H]taurocholate in confluent polarized monolayers of normal rat cholangiocytes (NRC). We observed unidirectional (i.e., apical to basolateral) Na+-dependent transcellular transport of [3H]taurocholate. Kinetic studies in purified vesicles derived from the apical domain of NRC disclosed saturable Na+-dependent uptake of [3H]taurocholate, with apparent Km and Vmax values of 209+/-45 microM and 1.23+/-0.14 nmol/mg/10 s, respectively. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) using degenerate primers for both the rat liver Na+-dependent taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide and rat ileal apical Na+-dependent bile acid transporter, designated Ntcp and ASBT, respectively, revealed a 206-bp product in NRC whose sequence was identical to the ASBT. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the size of the ASBT transcript was identical in NRC, freshly isolated cholangiocytes, and terminal ileum. In situ RT-PCR on normal rat liver showed that the message for ASBT was present only in cholangiocytes. Immunoblots using a well-characterized antibody for the ASBT demonstrated a 48-kD protein present only in apical membranes. Indirect immunohistochemistry revealed apical localization of ASBT in cholangiocytes in normal rat liver. The data provide direct evidence that conjugated bile acids are taken up at the apical domain of cholangiocytes via the ASBT, and are consistent with the notion that cholangiocyte physiology may be directly influenced by bile acids.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Physiol
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                February 2005
                21 January 2005
                : 99
                : 2
                : p35-p42
                Departments of aPharmacology and Toxicology and bAnatomy and Reproductive Biology, Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
                82870 Nephron Physiol 2005;99:p35–p42
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 54, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/82870
                Original Paper


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