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      Accumulation of N σ-(Carboxy-methyl)lysine and Changes inGlomerular Extracellular MatrixComponents in Otsuka Long-EvansTokushima Fatty Rat:A Model of Spontaneous NIDDM

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          Increases in extracellular matrix (ECM) and changes in its components have been documented in the glomeruli of diabetic nephropathy. Advanced glycation end products formed by glycoxidation have been shown to induce the synthesis of ECM components and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), suggesting that advanced glycation end products may be involved in the etiology of imbalance of ECM components in diabetic glomerulosclerosis. The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus which progresses to diabetic glomerulosclerosis. N<sup>Ε</sup>-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) is known to be formed by glycoxidation. To clarify the involvement of glycoxidation in diabetic nephropathy, we examined the localization of CML, ECM components, and TGF-β<sub>1</sub> in the glomeruli of OLETF rats. The amounts of α<sub>3</sub>(IV) collagen, type VI collagen, and fibronectin were significantly increased in the glomeruli of OLETF rats, whereas the heparan sulfate proteoglycan levels were decreased. After 6 months of age, CML levels were significantly increased in the mesangial area of the glomeruli in these animals. The overexpression of TGF-β<sub>1</sub> preceded the increase in glomerular ECM components. The present study demonstrated that the accumulation of CML precedes the changes of glomerular ECM components in the glomeruli during the course of diabetic nephropathy, suggesting that glycoxidation may be one of the major causes of diabetic glomerulosclerosis.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Glycation and glycoxidation of histones by ADP-ribose.

          The reaction of long lived proteins with reducing sugars has been implicated in the pathophysiology of aging and age-related diseases. A likely intranuclear source of reducing sugar is ADP-ribose, which is generated following DNA damage from the turnover of ADP-ribose polymers. In this study, ADP-ribose has been shown to be a potent histone glycation and glycoxidation agent in vitro. Incubation of ADP-ribose with histones H1, H2A, H2B, and H4 at pH 7.5 resulted in the formation of ketoamine glycation conjugates. Incubation of histone H1 with ADP-ribose also rapidly resulted in the formation of protein carboxymethyllysine residues, protein-protein cross-links, and highly fluorescent products with properties similar to the advanced glycosylation end product pentosidine. The formation of glycoxidation products was related to the degradation of ketoamine glycation conjugates by two different pathways. One pathway resulted in the formation of protein carboxymethyllysine residues and release of an ADP moiety containing a glyceric acid fragment. A second pathway resulted in the release of ADP, and it is postulated that this pathway is involved in the formation of histone-histone cross-links and fluorescent advanced glycosylation end products.
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            Transforming growth factor-beta. Multiple actions and potential clinical applications.

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              An abnormal hemoglobin in red cells of diabetics

               Samuel Rahbar (1968)

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                August 1998
                29 July 1998
                : 79
                : 4
                : 458-468
                a Department of Medicine III, Okayama University Medical School, Okayama, b Department of Biochemistry, Kumamoto University Medical School, Kumamoto, Japan
                45093 Nephron 1998;79:458–468
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Pages: 11
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