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      Effects of Protein Restriction on Performances and Meat Quality of Cinta Senese Pig Reared in an Organic System

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          Abstract

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          Fat contained in meat is an important contributor to sensory traits: it increases meat tenderness and flavor. In commercial pigs, increasing meat’s fat was obtained by feeding, until the fattening period, a diet slightly lower in protein respect to their requirements. Local pig breeds, such as Cinta Senese, are known as obese pigs because their great potential to deposit fat, which is mainly stored in backfat deposits. This study was aimed to assess if protein restriction in growing can further increase meat’s fat without alter overall body fatness of obese pigs. The normal feeding management and the restricted one were compared in two groups of Cinta Senese pigs. Results showed that protein restriction during the growing phase affected only few traits. The restricted animal was more able to use the protein in feeding, but few modifications were found in the chemical composition of meat, including the meat’s fat, that remained unchanged. So, obese genotype might be less responsive to this kind of feeding management.

          Abstract

          In lean genotypes, protein restriction during growing increases intramuscular fat content without affecting the overall carcass fatness. The present study aims to assess the feasibility of applying this feeding management on an obese pig, the Cinta Senese, since obese genotypes are characterized by great lipogenic potential often leading to excessively high backfat deposits. Twenty pigs of average weight 38 kg, were divided in two groups, the first group was fed a protein restricted diet (9% of crude protein), while the second one a normal diet (13.5% of crude protein). During finishing, both groups were fed the same diet (10% of crude protein). Average daily gain, protein conversion index, backfat thickness, carcass weight, and prime cuts were determined. A loin sample joint was dissected in intermuscular fat, bone, subcutaneous fat, longissimus lumborum, and psoas major. On longissimus lumborum, physical and chemical analysis was carried out. The fatty acid profile of longissimus lumborum and loin subcutaneous fat were determined. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Protein conversion index resulted lower in the restricted group, while backfat was slightly greater. Meat quality traits were not affected by feeding management. Slightly modifications in subcutaneous outer layer fatty acids profile were observed. The protein restriction during growing did not seem a suitable mode of feeding management for Cinta Senese pigs.

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          Eine einfache Methode zur Bestimmung der Wasserbindung im Muskel

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            Effects of breed, diet and muscle on fat deposition and eating quality in pigs.

            A study in 192 entire male pigs examined the effects of breed, diet and muscle on growth, fatness, sensory traits and fatty acid composition. There were four breeds: two modern breeds, Duroc and Large White and two traditional breeds, Berkshire and Tamworth. The diets differed in energy:protein ratio, being conventional (C) and low protein (LP) diets, respectively. Muscles investigated were the `white' longissimus dorsi (LD) and the `red' psoas major (PS). Breed influenced growth rate and fatness, the modern breeds being faster-growing with leaner carcasses. However, the concentrations of neutral lipid fatty acids and marbling fat (neutral lipid+phosopholipid fatty acids) were higher in Berkshire and Duroc, in both LD and PS. Relationships between marbling fat and P2 fat thickness showed clear breed effects, with Duroc having high marbling fat at low P2 and Tamworth low marbling fat at high P2. Breed effects on sensory scores given by the trained taste panel to griddled LD and PS steaks were relatively small. Breed affected the fatty acid composition of intramuscular neutral lipid, with high % values for the saturated fatty acids, 14:0 and 16:0 in Berkshire and Tamworth (fat carcasses) and high values for polyunsaturated fatty acids in Duroc and Large White (lean carcasses). Duroc had particularly high concentrations of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in phospholipid of both muscles. Diet influenced growth rate and fatness, the LP diet slowing growth and producing fatter meat, more so in the two modern breeds, and particularly in intramuscular rather than subcutaneous fat. This diet produced more tender and juicy meat, although pork flavour and flavour liking were reduced. The PS muscle had higher tenderness, juiciness, pork flavour, flavour liking and overall liking scores than LD. The concentration of phospholipid fatty acids was higher in PS than LD but neutral lipid fatty acid content and marbling fat were higher in LD.
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              Advances in low-protein diets for swine

              Recent years have witnessed the great advantages of reducing dietary crude protein (CP) with free amino acids (AA) supplementation for sustainable swine industry, including saving protein ingredients, reducing nitrogen excretion, feed costs and the risk of gut disorders without impairing growth performance compared to traditional diets. However, a tendency toward increased fatness is a matter of concern when pigs are fed low-protein (LP) diets. In response, the use of the net energy system and balanced AA for formulation of LP diets has been proposed as a solution. Moreover, the extent to which dietary CP can be reduced is complicated. Meanwhile, the requirements for the first five limiting AA (lysine, threonine, sulfur-containing AA, tryptophan, and valine) that growing-finishing pigs fed LP diets were higher than pigs fed traditional diets, because the need for nitrogen for endogenous synthesis of non-essential AA to support protein synthesis may be increased when dietary CP is lowered. Overall, to address these concerns and give a better understanding of this nutritional strategy, this paper reviews recent advances in the study of LP diets for swine and provides some insights into future research directions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Animals (Basel)
                Animals (Basel)
                animals
                Animals : an Open Access Journal from MDPI
                MDPI
                2076-2615
                31 May 2019
                June 2019
                : 9
                : 6
                : 310
                Affiliations
                Department of Agri-Food Production and Environmental Sciences, Section of Animal Sciences, University of Firenze, Via delle Cascine 5, 50144 Firenze, Italy; francesco.sirtori@ 123456unifi.it (F.S.); oreste.franci@ 123456unifi.it (O.F.); anna.acciaioli@ 123456unifi.it (A.A.); riccardo.bozzi@ 123456unifi.it (R.B.); antonio.pezzati@ 123456unifi.it (A.P.); carolina.pugliese@ 123456unifi.it (C.P.)
                Author notes
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6282-0993
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3735-8714
                Article
                animals-09-00310
                10.3390/ani9060310
                6616403
                31159304
                a4c7bb29-ec94-4c98-92fe-a642b5bcff3b
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 03 May 2019
                : 28 May 2019
                Categories
                Article

                autochthonous breed,protein content,fat deposition,fatty acids,growing

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