Objective To understand the nutritional status of primary and secondary school students in Furong District of Changsha from 2015 to 2021 and provide a basis for the targeted child health care.
Methods Data of autumn health check of primary and secondary school students in Furong District of Changsha was collected from 2015 to 2021. A total of 345 968 students were enrolled, and their nutritional status was analyzed.
Results The overall malnutrition rate of students showed a downward trend, and the differences were statistically significant (χ 2 = 2 177.92, P<0.01); the overall overweight detection rate of students increased from 5.22% to 13.75% in 2021, showing an upward trend year by year, the differences were statistically significant (χ 2= 6 476.36, P<0.01); the overall obesity detection rate of students in 2021 had increased compared with that in 2015, increasing from 11.43% to 11.73%, showing an upward trend year by year (χ 2=20.03, P<0.01). The annual rates of malnutrition, overweight, and obesity in boys were higher than those in girls ( P<0.01).
Conclusion The malnutrition status of primary and middle school students in Furong District of Changsha has been improving year by year, but students’ overweight and obesity rates have been increasing, and the nutritional status of boys is more prominent than girls. Therefore, targeted coping strategies should be adopted in health care.
【摘要】 目的 了解2015—2021年长沙市芙蓉区中小学生营养状况, 为针对性开展中小学生卫生保健工作提供依据。 方法 收集2015—2021年长沙市芙蓉区中小学生秋季健康检査数据, 共纳人345 968名学生, 分析其营养状况。 结果 学生 总体营养不良率呈现逐年下降趋势, 差异有统计学意义 (χ 2 趋势=2 177.92, P<0.01);学生总体超重检出率从2015年的5.22% 上升到2021年的13.75%, 呈现逐年上升趋势 (χ 2 趋势=6 476.36, P<0.01);学生总体肥胖检出率, 从2015年的11.43%增至 2021年的11.73%, 呈逐年上升趋势 (χ 2 趋势=20.03, P<0.01)。各年度男生营养不良、超重、肥胖检出率均髙于女生 ( P值均<0.01)。 结论 长沙市芙蓉区中小学生的营养不良状况逐年改善, 但超重、肥胖率存在逐年上升趋势, 且男生营养状况两极 问题较女生更突出, 在卫生保健工作中应当采取针对性的应对策略。