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      Rates of opioid misuse, abuse, and addiction in chronic pain: a systematic review and data synthesis.

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          Abstract

          Opioid use in chronic pain treatment is complex, as patients may derive both benefit and harm. Identification of individuals currently using opioids in a problematic way is important given the substantial recent increases in prescription rates and consequent increases in morbidity and mortality. The present review provides updated and expanded information regarding rates of problematic opioid use in chronic pain. Because previous reviews have indicated substantial variability in this literature, several steps were taken to enhance precision and utility. First, problematic use was coded using explicitly defined terms, referring to different patterns of use (ie, misuse, abuse, and addiction). Second, average prevalence rates were calculated and weighted by sample size and study quality. Third, the influence of differences in study methodology was examined. In total, data from 38 studies were included. Rates of problematic use were quite broad, ranging from <1% to 81% across studies. Across most calculations, rates of misuse averaged between 21% and 29% (range, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13%-38%). Rates of addiction averaged between 8% and 12% (range, 95% CI: 3%-17%). Abuse was reported in only a single study. Only 1 difference emerged when study methods were examined, where rates of addiction were lower in studies that identified prevalence assessment as a primary, rather than secondary, objective. Although significant variability remains in this literature, this review provides guidance regarding possible average rates of opioid misuse and addiction and also highlights areas in need of further clarification.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Societal costs of prescription opioid abuse, dependence, and misuse in the United States.

          The objective of this study was to estimate the societal costs of prescription opioid abuse, dependence, and misuse in the United States. Costs were grouped into three categories: health care, workplace, and criminal justice. Costs were estimated by 1) quantity method, which multiplies the number of opioid abuse patients by cost per opioid abuse patient; and 2) apportionment method, which begins with overall costs of drug abuse per component and apportions the share associated with prescription opioid abuse based on relative prevalence of prescription opioid to overall drug abuse. Excess health care costs per patient were based on claims data analysis of privately insured and Medicaid beneficiaries. Other data/information were derived from publicly available survey and other secondary sources. Total US societal costs of prescription opioid abuse were estimated at $55.7 billion in 2007 (USD in 2009). Workplace costs accounted for $25.6 billion (46%), health care costs accounted for $25.0 billion (45%), and criminal justice costs accounted for $5.1 billion (9%). Workplace costs were driven by lost earnings from premature death ($11.2 billion) and reduced compensation/lost employment ($7.9 billion). Health care costs consisted primarily of excess medical and prescription costs ($23.7 billion). Criminal justice costs were largely comprised of correctional facility ($2.3 billion) and police costs ($1.5 billion).   The costs of prescription opioid abuse represent a substantial and growing economic burden for the society. The increasing prevalence of abuse suggests an even greater societal burden in the future. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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            Systematic review: opioid treatment for chronic back pain: prevalence, efficacy, and association with addiction.

            The prevalence, efficacy, and risk for addiction for persons receiving opioids for chronic back pain are unclear. To determine the prevalence of opioid treatment, whether opioid medications are effective, and the prevalence of substance use disorders among patients receiving opioid medications for chronic back pain. English-language studies from MEDLINE (1966-March 2005), EMBASE (1966-March 2005), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (to 4th quarter 2004), PsychInfo (1966-March 2005), and retrieved references. Articles that studied an adult, nonobstetric sample; used oral, topical, or transdermal opioids; and focused on treatment for chronic back pain. Two investigators independently extracted data and determined study quality. Opioid prescribing varied by treatment setting (range, 3% to 66%). Meta-analysis of the 4 studies assessing the efficacy of opioids compared with placebo or a nonopioid control did not show reduced pain with opioids (g, -0.199 composite standardized mean difference [95% CI, -0.49 to 0.11]; P = 0.136). Meta-analysis of the 5 studies directly comparing the efficacy of different opioids demonstrated a nonsignificant reduction in pain from baseline (g, -0.93 composite standardized mean difference [CI, -1.89 to -0.03]; P = 0.055). The prevalence of lifetime substance use disorders ranged from 36% to 56%, and the estimates of the prevalence of current substance use disorders were as high as 43%. Aberrant medication-taking behaviors ranged from 5% to 24%. Retrieval and publication biases and poor study quality. No trial evaluating the efficacy of opioids was longer than 16 weeks. Opioids are commonly prescribed for chronic back pain and may be efficacious for short-term pain relief. Long-term efficacy (> or =16 weeks) is unclear. Substance use disorders are common in patients taking opioids for back pain, and aberrant medication-taking behaviors occur in up to 24% of cases.
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              Characteristics of opioid prescriptions in 2009.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pain
                Pain
                1872-6623
                0304-3959
                Apr 2015
                : 156
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ] aDepartment of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA bDepartment of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA cDepartment of Economics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.
                Article
                00006396-201504000-00003
                10.1097/01.j.pain.0000460357.01998.f1
                25785523

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