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      Cardioprotective effect of rosmarinic acid against myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury via suppression of the NF-κB inflammatory signalling pathway and ROS production in mice

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          Abstract

          Context

          Rosmarinic acid (RosA), a natural poly-phenolic compound isolated from a variety of Labiatae herbs, has been reported to have a range of biological effects.

          Objective

          To investigate the cardioprotective effects of RosA against myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.

          Materials and methods

          Male C57BL/6J mice were given RosA (100 mg/kg) via intragastric administration. After 1 week of administration, the mice were subjected to 30 min/24 h myocardial I/R injury. The mice were randomly subdivided into 4 groups: Vehicle, RosA, Vehicle + I/R, and RosA + I/R. Infarct size (IS), cardiac function (including EF, FS), histopathology, serum enzyme activities, ROS changes, cis aconitase (ACO) activity, and specific mRNA and protein levels were assessed in vivo. HL-1 cells were pre-treated with or without RosA (50 μM), followed by stimulation with 9 h/6 h of oxygen and glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R). The cells were randomly subdivided into 4 groups: Vehicle, RosA, Vehicle + OGD/R, and RosA + OGD/R. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, ACO activity, ROS changes and protein levels were measured in vitro.

          Results

          Treatment with RosA reduced the following indicators in vivo ( p < 0.05): (1) IS (14.5%); (2) EF (-23.4%) and FS (-18.4%); (3) the myocardial injury enzymes CK-MB (20.8 ng/mL) and cTnI (7.7 ng/mL); (4) DHE-ROS: (94.1%); (5) ACO activity (-2.1 mU/mg protein); (6) ogdh mRNA level (122.9%); and (7) OGDH protein level (69.9%). Moreover, treatment with RosA attenuated the following indicators in vitro ( p < 0.05): (1) LDH level (191 U/L); (2) DHE-ROS: (165.2%); (3) ACO activity (-3.2 mU/mg protein); (4) ogdh mRNA level (70.0%); and (5) OGDH (110.1%), p-IκB-a (56.8%), and p-NF-κB (57.7%) protein levels.

          Conclusions

          RosA has the potential to treat myocardial I/R injury with potential application in the clinic.

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          Most cited references44

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          Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: a neglected therapeutic target.

          Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In patients with MI, the treatment of choice for reducing acute myocardial ischemic injury and limiting MI size is timely and effective myocardial reperfusion using either thombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). However, the process of reperfusion can itself induce cardiomyocyte death, known as myocardial reperfusion injury, for which there is still no effective therapy. A number of new therapeutic strategies currently under investigation for preventing myocardial reperfusion injury have the potential to improve clinical outcomes in patients with acute MI treated with PPCI.
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            Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Aggravates High Glucose- and Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Injury through Activating ROS-Dependent NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated Pyroptosis in H9C2 Cardiomyocytes

            Diabetes aggravates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury because of the combination effects of changes in glucose and lipid energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammatory response. Studies have indicated that myocardial I/R may coincide and interact with sepsis and inflammation. However, the role of LPS in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury in cardiomyocytes under high glucose conditions is still unclear. Our objective was to examine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could aggravate high glucose- (HG-) and hypoxia/reoxygenation- (H/R-) induced injury by upregulating ROS production to activate NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis in H9C2 cardiomyocytes. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to HG (30 mM) condition with or without LPS, along with caspase-1 inhibitor (Ac-YVAD-CMK), inflammasome inhibitor (BAY11-7082), ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or not for 24 h, then subjected to 4 h of hypoxia followed by 2 h of reoxygenation (H/R). The cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, caspase-1 activity, and intracellular ROS production were detected by using assay kits. The incidence of pyroptosis was detected by calcein-AM/propidium iodide (PI) double staining kit. The concentrations of IL-1β and IL-18 in the supernatants were assessed by ELISA. The mRNA levels of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 were detected by qRT-PCR. The protein levels of NF-κB p65, NLRP3, ASC, cleaved caspase-1 (p10), IL-1β, and IL-18 were detected by western blot. The results indicated that pretreatment LPS with 1 μg/ml not 0.1 μg/ml could efficiently aggravate HG and H/R injury by activating NLRP3 inflammasome to mediate pyroptosis in H9C2 cells, as evidenced by increased LDH release and decreased cell viability in the cells, and increased expression of NLRP3, ASC, cleaved caspase-1 (p10), IL-1β, and IL-18. Meanwhile, Ac-YVAD-CMK, BAY11-7082, or NAC attenuated HG- and H/R-induced H9C2 cell injury with LPS stimulated by reversing the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis. In conclusion, LPS could increase the sensitivity of H9C2 cells to HG and H/R and aggravated HG- and H/R-induced H9C2 cell injury by promoting ROS production to induce NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis.
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              Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury: from basic science to clinical bedside.

              Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury contributes to adverse cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial ischemia, cardiac surgery or circulatory arrest. Primarily, no blood flow to the heart causes an imbalance between oxygen demand and supply, named ischemia (from the Greek isch, restriction; and haema, blood), resulting in damage or dysfunction of the cardiac tissue. Instinctively, early and fast restoration of blood flow has been established to be the treatment of choice to prevent further tissue injury. Indeed, the use of thrombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the most effective strategy for reducing the size of a myocardial infarct and improving the clinical outcome. Unfortunately, restoring blood flow to the ischemic myocardium, named reperfusion, can also induce injury. This phenomenon was therefore termed myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Subsequent studies in animal models of acute myocardial infarction suggest that myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury accounts for up to 50% of the final size of a myocardial infarct. Consequently, many researchers aim to understand the underlying molecular mechanism of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury to find therapeutic strategies ultimately reducing the final infarct size. Despite the identification of numerous therapeutic strategies at the bench, many of them are just in the process of being translated to bedside. The current review discusses the most striking basic science findings made during the past decades that are currently under clinical evaluation, with the ultimate goal to treat patients who are suffering from myocardial ischemia reperfusion-associated tissue injury.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pharm Biol
                Pharm Biol
                Pharmaceutical Biology
                Taylor & Francis
                1388-0209
                1744-5116
                18 February 2021
                2021
                : 59
                : 1
                : 222-231
                Affiliations
                [a ]Xi’an Mental Health Center, School of Medicine, Xi’an Jiaotong University , Xi’an, China
                [b ]College of Pharmacy, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine , Shijiazhuang, China
                [c ]Department of Pharmacy, Xijing Hospital, Air Force Medical University , Xi’an, China
                [d ]Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University , Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors are co-first authors and have made equal contributions to this work.

                CONTACT Fei Liu liufeivip2020@ 123456163.com Xi’an Mental Health Center, School of Medicine, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Hangtian Avenue, Chang'an District , Xi’an, Shaanxi, 710199, China
                Article
                1878236
                10.1080/13880209.2021.1878236
                7894452
                33600735
                a4ce0201-1613-417b-94ff-d167e137ebad
                © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 1, Pages: 10, Words: 6250
                Categories
                Research Article
                Research Article

                cardioprotection, inflammation response,oxoglutarate dehydrogenase,antioxidation

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