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      Advanced stages of PD: interventional therapies and related patient-centered care

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          Most cited references 42

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          Continuous intrajejunal infusion of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease: a randomised, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy study.

          Levodopa is the most effective therapy for Parkinson's disease, but chronic treatment is associated with the development of potentially disabling motor complications. Experimental studies suggest that motor complications are due to non-physiological, intermittent administration of the drug, and can be reduced with continuous delivery. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel delivered continuously through an intrajejunal percutaneous tube. In our 12-week, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, double-titration trial, we enrolled adults (aged ≥ 30 years) with advanced Parkinson's disease and motor complications at 26 centres in Germany, New Zealand, and the USA. Eligible participants had jejunal placement of a percutaneous gastrojejunostomy tube, and were then randomly allocated (1:1) to treatment with immediate-release oral levodopa-carbidopa plus placebo intestinal gel infusion or levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion plus oral placebo. Randomisation was stratified by site, with a mixed block size of 2 or 4. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to final visit in motor off-time. We assessed change in motor on-time without troublesome dyskinesia as a prespecified key secondary outcome. We assessed efficacy in a full-analysis set of participants with data for baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment, and imputed missing data with the last observation carried forward approach. We assessed safety in randomly allocated patients who underwent the percutaneous gastrojejunostomy procedure. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00660387 and NCT0357994. From baseline to 12 weeks in the full-analysis set, mean off-time decreased by 4.04 h (SE 0.65) for 35 patients allocated to the levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel group compared with a decrease of 2.14 h (0.66) for 31 patients allocated to immediate-release oral levodopa-carbidopa (difference -1.91 h [95% CI -3.05 to -0.76]; p=0.0015). Mean on-time without troublesome dyskinesia increased by 4.11 h (SE 0.75) in the intestinal gel group and 2.24 h (0.76) in the immediate-release oral group (difference 1.86 [95% CI 0.56 to 3.17]; p=0.0059). In the safety analyses 35 (95%) of 37 patients allocated to the levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel group had adverse events (five [14%] serious), as did 34 (100%) of 34 patients allocated to the immediate-release oral levodopa-carbidopa group (seven [21%] serious), mainly associated with the percutaneous gastrojejunostomy tube. Continuous delivery of levodopa-carbidopa with an intestinal gel offers a promising option for control of advanced Parkinson's disease with motor complications. Benefits noted with intestinal gel delivery were of a greater magnitude than were those obtained with medical therapies to date, and our study is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of the benefit of continuous levodopa delivery in a double-blind controlled study. AbbVie. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Subthalamic deep brain stimulation with a constant-current device in Parkinson's disease: an open-label randomised controlled trial.

            The effects of constant-current deep brain stimulation (DBS) have not been studied in controlled trials in patients with Parkinson's disease. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of bilateral constant-current DBS of the subthalamic nucleus. This prospective, randomised, multicentre controlled trial was done between Sept 26, 2005, and Aug 13, 2010, at 15 clinical sites specialising in movement disorders in the USA. Patients were eligible if they were aged 18-80 years, had Parkinson's disease for 5 years or more, and had either 6 h or more daily off time reported in a patient diary of moderate to severe dyskinesia during waking hours. The patients received bilateral implantation in the subthalamic nucleus of a constant-current DBS device. After implantation, computer-generated randomisation was done with a block size of four, and patients were randomly assigned to the stimulation or control group (stimulation:control ratio 3:1). The control group received implantation without activation for 3 months. No blinding occurred during this study, and both patients and investigators were aware of the treatment group. The primary outcome variable was the change in on time without bothersome dyskinesia (ie, good quality on time) at 3 months as recorded in patients' diaries. Patients were followed up for 1 year. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00552474. Of 168 patients assessed for eligibility, 136 had implantation of the constant-current device and were randomly assigned to receive immediate (101 patients) or delayed (35 patients) stimulation. Both study groups reported a mean increase of good quality on time after 3 months, and the increase was greater in the stimulation group (4·27 h vs 1·77 h, difference 2·51 [95% CI 0·87-4·16]; p=0·003). Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale motor scores in the off-medication, on-stimulation condition improved by 39% from baseline (24·8 vs 40·8). Some serious adverse events occurred after DBS implantation, including infections in five (4%) of 136 patients and intracranial haemorrhage in four (3%) patients. Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus was associated with dysarthria, fatigue, paraesthesias, and oedema, whereas gait problems, disequilibrium, dyskinesia, and falls were reported in both groups. Constant-current DBS of the subthalamic nucleus produced significant improvements in good quality on time when compared with a control group without stimulation. Future trials should compare the effects of constant-current DBS with those of voltage-controlled stimulation. St Jude Medical Neuromodulation Division. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Pallidal vs subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease.

              Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been reported to relieve motor symptoms and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). Although it has been suggested that stimulation of the STN may be superior to stimulation of the GPi, comparative trials are limited. To extend our randomized, blinded pilot comparison of the safety and efficacy of STN and GPi stimulation in patients with advanced PD. This study represents the combined results from our previously published, randomized, blinded, parallel-group pilot study and additional patients enrolled in our single-center extension study. Oregon Health and Science University in Portland.Patients Twenty-three patients with idiopathic PD, levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and response fluctuations were randomized to implantation of bilateral GPi or STN stimulators. Patients and evaluating clinicians were blinded to stimulation site. All patients were tested preoperatively while taking and not taking medications and after 3, 6, and 12 months of DBS. Postoperatively, response of symptoms to DBS, medication, and combined medication and DBS was evaluated. Twenty patients (10 in the GPi group and 10 in the STN group) completed 12-month follow-up. Off-medication Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores were improved after 12 months of both GPi and STN stimulation (39% vs 48%). Bradykinesia tended to improve more with STN than GPi stimulation. No improvement in on-medication function was observed in either group. Levodopa dose was reduced by 38% in STN stimulation patients compared with 3% in GPi stimulation patients (P = .08). Dyskinesia was reduced by stimulation at both GPi and STN (89% vs 62%). Cognitive and behavioral complications were observed only in combination with STN stimulation. Stimulation of either the GPi or STN improves many features of advanced PD. It is premature to exclude GPi as an appropriate target for DBS in patients with advanced disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Neural Transmission
                J Neural Transm
                Springer Nature
                0300-9564
                1435-1463
                January 2016
                July 3 2015
                January 2016
                : 123
                : 1
                : 31-43
                Article
                10.1007/s00702-015-1418-0
                © 2016

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