Oyster peptide–zinc nanoparticles (OPZNPs) (28–108 nm) were prepared in the presence of 0.5%–0.9% zinc sulfate at pH 6.0–11.0. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited uniform size distribution and spherical shapes. Nanoparticle characteristics, such as size, surface charge, and hydrophobicity, could be adjusted by controlling zinc sulfate concentration and environmental pH. Increasing pH value or decreasing zinc sulfate concentration tended to reduce nanoparticle size and increase nanoparticle surface charge and hydrophobicity. OPZNPs presented good stability at near-neutral pH and could be stored for at least 20 days at 4℃. The results of the peptide conformation study and nanoparticle dissociation test proved that zinc ions and carboxyl groups are the key factors that affect OPZNP formation. The intermolecular combinations of carboxyl groups via zinc bridging facilitated the aggregation of oyster peptides. Nanoparticle formation was accompanied by aggregate association and conformational changes. These changes included increments in β-sheets, especially intermolecular β-sheets, at the expense of α-helixes. Overall, this work provided a green alternative route for the synthesis of OPZNPs.