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      Effects of SGLT2 Inhibition in Human Kidney Proximal Tubular Cells—Renoprotection in Diabetic Nephropathy?

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          Abstract

          Sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are oral hypoglycemic agents used to treat patients with diabetes mellitus. SGLT2 inhibitors block reabsorption of filtered glucose by inhibiting SGLT2, the primary glucose transporter in the proximal tubular cell (PTC), leading to glycosuria and lowering of serum glucose. We examined the renoprotective effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin to determine whether blocking glucose entry into the kidney PTCs reduced the inflammatory and fibrotic responses of the cell to high glucose. We used an in vitro model of human PTCs. HK2 cells (human kidney PTC line) were exposed to control 5 mM, high glucose (HG) 30 mM or the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ1; 0.5 ng/ml) in the presence and absence of empagliflozin for up to 72 h. SGLT1 and 2 expression and various inflammatory/fibrotic markers were assessed. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to determine the binding of phosphorylated smad3 to the promoter region of the SGLT2 gene. Our data showed that TGFβ1 but not HG increased SGLT2 expression and this occurred via phosphorylated smad3. HG induced expression of Toll-like receptor-4, increased nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid binding for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein 1, induced collagen IV expression as well as interleukin-6 secretion all of which were attenuated with empagliflozin. Empagliflozin did not reduce high mobility group box protein 1 induced NF-κB suggesting that its effect is specifically related to a reduction in glycotoxicity. SGLT1 and GLUT2 expression was not significantly altered with HG or empagliflozin. In conclusion, empagliflozin reduces HG induced inflammatory and fibrotic markers by blocking glucose transport and did not induce a compensatory increase in SGLT1/GLUT2 expression. Although HG itself does not regulate SGLT2 expression in our model, TGFβ increases SGLT2 expression through phosphorylated smad3.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy.

          Although pathologic classifications exist for several renal diseases, including IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and lupus nephritis, a uniform classification for diabetic nephropathy is lacking. Our aim, commissioned by the Research Committee of the Renal Pathology Society, was to develop a consensus classification combining type1 and type 2 diabetic nephropathies. Such a classification should discriminate lesions by various degrees of severity that would be easy to use internationally in clinical practice. We divide diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions with a separate evaluation for degrees of interstitial and vascular involvement. Biopsies diagnosed as diabetic nephropathy are classified as follows: Class I, glomerular basement membrane thickening: isolated glomerular basement membrane thickening and only mild, nonspecific changes by light microscopy that do not meet the criteria of classes II through IV. Class II, mesangial expansion, mild (IIa) or severe (IIb): glomeruli classified as mild or severe mesangial expansion but without nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions) or global glomerulosclerosis in more than 50% of glomeruli. Class III, nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions): at least one glomerulus with nodular increase in mesangial matrix (Kimmelstiel-Wilson) without changes described in class IV. Class IV, advanced diabetic glomerulosclerosis: more than 50% global glomerulosclerosis with other clinical or pathologic evidence that sclerosis is attributable to diabetic nephropathy. A good interobserver reproducibility for the four classes of DN was shown (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84) in a test of this classification.
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            Empagliflozin, a novel selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor: characterisation and comparison with other SGLT-2 inhibitors.

            Empagliflozin is a selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study assessed pharmacological properties of empagliflozin in vitro and pharmacokinetic properties in vivo and compared its potency and selectivity with other SGLT-2 inhibitors. [(14)C]-alpha-methyl glucopyranoside (AMG) uptake experiments were performed with stable cell lines over-expressing human (h) SGLT-1, 2 and 4. Two new cell lines over-expressing hSGLT-5 and hSGLT-6 were established and [(14)C]-mannose and [(14)C]-myo-inositol uptake assays developed. Binding kinetics were analysed using a radioligand binding assay with [(3)H]-labelled empagliflozin and HEK293-hSGLT-2 cell membranes. Acute in vivo assessment of pharmacokinetics was performed with normoglycaemic beagle dogs and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Empagliflozin has an IC(50) of 3.1 nM for hSGLT-2. Its binding to SGLT-2 is competitive with glucose (half-life approximately 1 h). Compared with other SGLT-2 inhibitors, empagliflozin has a high degree of selectivity over SGLT-1, 4, 5 and 6. Species differences in SGLT-1 selectivity were identified. Empagliflozin pharmacokinetics in ZDF rats were characterised by moderate total plasma clearance (CL) and bioavailability (BA), while in beagle dogs CL was low and BA was high. Empagliflozin is a potent and competitive SGLT-2 inhibitor with an excellent selectivity profile and the highest selectivity window of the tested SGLT-2 inhibitors over hSGLT-1. Empagliflozin represents an innovative therapeutic approach to treat diabetes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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              Renal Na(+)-glucose cotransporters.

              In humans, the kidneys filter approximately 180 g of D-glucose from plasma each day, and this is normally reabsorbed in the proximal tubules. Although the mechanism of reabsorption is well understood, Na(+)-glucose cotransport across the brush-border membrane and facilitated diffusion across the basolateral membrane, questions remain about the identity of the genes responsible for cotransport across the brush border. Genetic studies suggest that two different genes regulate Na(+)-glucose cotransport, and there is evidence from animal studies to suggest that the major bulk of sugar is reabsorbed in the convoluted proximal tubule by a low-affinity, high-capacity transporter and that the remainder is absorbed in the straight proximal tubule by a high-affinity, low-capacity transporter. There are at least three different candidates for these human renal Na(+)-glucose cotransporters. This review will focus on the structure-function relationships of these three transporters, SGLT1, SGLT2, and SGLT3.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2013
                4 February 2013
                : 8
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, Renal Research Group, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, New South Wales, Australia
                [2 ]Glycation and Diabetes Research Group, Mater Medical Research Institute, South Brisbane Qld, Australia
                University of Leicester, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: Boehringer Ingelheim provided the Empagliflozin and funding but had no role in the study design, data analysis and data interpretation of the manuscript. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

                Critical review of manuscript: AM JF CP. Conceived and designed the experiments: UP JF AM CP. Performed the experiments: UP KP SG MG HM. Analyzed the data: UP AM CP JF. Wrote the paper: UP.

                Article
                PONE-D-12-29085
                10.1371/journal.pone.0054442
                3563635
                23390498

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 8
                Funding
                The authors are grateful to the National Health and Medical Council of Australia for funding this study (1004926). The authors would like to thank Boehringer Ingelheim for providing the empagliflozin and funding for the study. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology
                Anatomy and Physiology
                Endocrine System
                Diabetic Endocrinology
                Immunology
                Immunity
                Inflammation
                Medicine
                Anatomy and Physiology
                Endocrine System
                Diabetic Endocrinology
                Clinical Immunology
                Immunity
                Inflammation
                Endocrinology
                Diabetic Endocrinology
                Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
                Nephrology
                Tubulointerstitial Disease

                Uncategorized

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