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      Influence of Endothelin-1 Gene Polymorphisms on the Progression of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

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          Abstract

          Background/Aim:A significant phenotypical variability is observed in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The variability cannot be fully explained by the genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been suggested to be a major promoting factor in renal diseases. The role of the ET-1 gene locus (EDN1) in the renal function in the general nondiabetic population was evaluated. We examined the influence of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the ET-1 gene (EDN1) – K198N, 3A/4A, and T-1370G – on the progression of ADPKD towards end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods: Two hundred and five ADPKD patients (113 males and 92 females) who had reached ESRD were analyzed. The patients were divided into three groups: (1) 48 patients (23 males and 25 females) with ESRD later than 63 years of age (slow progressors), (2) 74 patients (41 males and 33 females) with ESRD before 45 years of age (rapid progressors), and (3) 83 patients (49 males and 34 females) with ESRD between 45 and 63 years old. DNA samples from collected blood were genotyped for three single-nucleotide polymorphisms of EDN1: K198N, 3A/4A, and T-1370G. Haplotype analysis was also done in 200 healthy individuals. We compared the frequencies of the different genotypes between the groups of slow and rapid progressors and the ages at the time of ESRD regarding the EDN1 genotypes. Results: The EDN1 genotype distribution showed no differences among the groups of slow progressors, rapid progressors, the ADPKD group with ESRD between 45 and 63 years old, and the control group. Comparing the ages of ESRD of all patients, we did not find significant differences with regard to the different genotypes. Furthermore, we compared the combinations of the different haplotypes and the ages at the time of ESRD. We found no differences in ages at the time of ESRD in patients with different haplotypes in the endothelin promoter (T-1370G) in combination with 3A/4A or K198N polymorphisms. Comparing the ages at the time of ESRD in patients with different 3A/4A and K198N haplotypes, we found a significantly lower age at the time of ESRD (47.1 ± 8.7 years) in the carriers of the 4A allele in combination with the 198N allele (4A/4A, 3A/4A + 198KN,NN) than in the carriers of the 4A allele homozygous for the K198 allele (52.9 ± 10.9 years; 4A/4A, 3A/4A + 198KK; t test: p < 0.01) and in the carriers of the 198N allele homozygous for the 3A allele (53 ± 11.2 years; 3A/3A + 198KN,NN; t test: p < 0.05). Conclusions: We excluded an effect of K198N, 3A/4A, and T-1370G polymorphisms of EDN1 on the progression of ADPKD. However, a deleterious effect of the combination of 4A and 198N alleles of EDN1 was observed in APKDK individuals.

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          Most cited references 20

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          The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

          A high incidence of hypertension (50 to 75 percent) occurs early in the course of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Cyst enlargement, causing bilateral renal ischemia and subsequent release of renin, is proposed as the cause of this form of hypertension. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentrations during short-term and long-term converting-enzyme inhibition in 14 patients with hypertension due to polycystic kidney disease, 9 patients with essential hypertension, 11 normotensive patients with polycystic kidney disease, and 13 normal subjects. The groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, body-surface area, degree of hypertension, sodium excretion, and renal function. During the short-term study, the mean (+/- SE) plasma renin activity was significantly higher in the hypertensive patients with polycystic kidney disease than in the patients with essential hypertension, in the supine (0.36 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.22 +/- 0.06 ng per liter.second, P = 0.05) and upright positions (1.03 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.08 ng per liter.second, P less than 0.03) and after converting-enzyme inhibition (1.97 +/- 0.28 vs. 0.67 +/- 0.17 ng per liter.second, P less than 0.0006). The mean arterial pressures measured in the supine and upright positions and the plasma aldosterone concentrations measured in the upright position were significantly higher in the normotensive patients with polycystic kidney disease than in the normal subjects. After six weeks of converting-enzyme inhibition, renal plasma flow increased (P less than 0.005), and both renal vascular resistance (P less than 0.007) and the filtration fraction (P less than 0.02) decreased significantly in the hypertensive patients with polycystic kidney disease but not in the patients with essential hypertension. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is stimulated significantly more in hypertensive patients with polycystic kidney disease than in comparable patients with essential hypertension. The increased renin release, perhaps due to renal ischemia caused by cyst expansion, probably contributes to the early development of hypertension in polycystic kidney disease.
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            Comparison of phenotypes of polycystic kidney disease types 1 and 2

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              Endothelin-1 transgenic mice develop glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and renal cysts but not hypertension.

              The human endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene under the control of its natural promoter was transferred into the germline of mice. The transgene was expressed predominantly in the brain, lung, and kidney. Transgene expression was associated with a pathological phenotype manifested by signs such as age-dependent development of renal cysts, interstitial fibrosis of the kidneys, and glomerulosclerosis leading to a progressive decrease in glomerular filtration rate. This pathology developed in spite of only slightly elevated plasma and tissue ET-1 concentrations. Blood pressure was not affected even after the development of an impaired glomerular filtration rate. Therefore, these transgenic lines provide a new blood pressure-independent animal model of ET-1-induced renal pathology leading to renal fibrosis and fatal kidney disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2006
                October 2006
                06 October 2006
                : 29
                : 3
                : 182-188
                Affiliations
                Departments of aNephrology and bBiology and Human Genetics, 1st Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, and cDepartment of Internal Medicine I, Charles University Hospital, Pilsen, Czech Republic
                Article
                95504 Kidney Blood Press Res 2006;29:182–188
                10.1159/000095504
                16943682
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 6, References: 26, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/95504
                Categories
                Original Paper

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