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      Integrative taxonomy of the genus Dudgeodes Sartori, 2008 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera, Teloganodidae) from the Philippines with description of new species and supplementary descriptions of Southeast Asian species

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          COI sequences were used as an initial clustering method to delimit putative species of the genus Dudgeodes in the Philippines. An overview of the diagnostic characters of Philippine species and characters with high intraspecific variability are given. Six new species of Dudgeodes are described and illustrated: D. bauernfeindi Garces & Sartori, sp. nov., D. freitagi Garces & Sartori, sp. nov., D. luntian Garces & Sartori, sp. nov., D. pangantihoni Garces & Sartori, sp. nov., D. tabang Garces & Sartori, sp. nov., and D. vonrinteleni Garces & Sartori, sp. nov., all known from the nymphal stage. Supplementary descriptions are provided for D. pescadori Sartori, 2008, D. hutanis Sartori, 2008, D. stephani Sartori, 2008, D. ulmeri Sartori, 2008, and D. celebensis Sartori, 2008. A key to the nymphs of Philippine Dudgeodes species is proposed.

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          Most cited references 36

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          DNA barcode-based delineation of putative species: efficient start for taxonomic workflows

          The analysis of DNA barcode sequences with varying techniques for cluster recognition provides an efficient approach for recognizing putative species (operational taxonomic units, OTUs). This approach accelerates and improves taxonomic workflows by exposing cryptic species and decreasing the risk of synonymy. This study tested the congruence of OTUs resulting from the application of three analytical methods (ABGD, BIN, GMYC) to sequence data for Australian hypertrophine moths. OTUs supported by all three approaches were viewed as robust, but 20% of the OTUs were only recognized by one or two of the methods. These OTUs were examined for three criteria to clarify their status. Monophyly and diagnostic nucleotides were both uninformative, but information on ranges was useful as sympatric sister OTUs were viewed as distinct, while allopatric OTUs were merged. This approach revealed 124 OTUs of Hypertrophinae, a more than twofold increase from the currently recognized 51 species. Because this analytical protocol is both fast and repeatable, it provides a valuable tool for establishing a basic understanding of species boundaries that can be validated with subsequent studies.
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            Integrative taxonomy on the fast track - towards more sustainability in biodiversity research

            Background A so called “taxonomic impediment” has been recognized as a major obstacle to biodiversity research for the past two decades. Numerous remedies were then proposed. However, neither significant progress in terms of formal species descriptions, nor a minimum standard for descriptions have been achieved so far. Here, we analyze the problems of traditional taxonomy which often produces keys and descriptions of limited practical value. We suggest that phylogenetics and phenetics had a subtle and so far unnoticed effect on taxonomy leading to inflated species descriptions. Discussion The term “turbo-taxonomy” was recently coined for an approach combining cox1 sequences, concise morphological descriptions by an expert taxonomist, and high-resolution digital imaging to streamline the formal description of larger numbers of new species. We propose a further development of this approach which, together with open access web-publication and automated pushing of content from journal into a wiki, may create the most efficient and sustainable way to conduct taxonomy in the future. On demand, highly concise descriptions can be gradually updated or modified in the fully versioned wiki-framework we use. This means that the visibility of additional data is not compromised, while the original species description -the first version- remains preserved in the wiki, and of course in the journal version. A DNA sequence database with an identification engine replaces an identification key, helps to avoid synonyms and has the potential to detect grossly incorrect generic placements. We demonstrate the functionality of a species-description pipeline by naming 101 new species of hyperdiverse New Guinea Trigonopterus weevils in the open-access journal ZooKeys. Summary Fast track taxonomy will not only increase speed, but also sustainability of global species inventories. It will be of great practical value to all the other disciplines that depend on a usable taxonomy and will change our perception of global biodiversity. While this approach is certainly not suitable for all taxa alike, it is the tool that will help to tackle many hyperdiverse groups and pave the road for more sustainable comparative studies, e.g. in community ecology, phylogeography and large scale biogeographic studies.
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              DNA-based species delineation in tropical beetles using mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

              DNA barcoding has been successfully implemented in the identification of previously described species, and in the process has revealed several cryptic species. It has been noted that such methods could also greatly assist in the discovery and delineation of undescribed species in poorly studied groups, although to date the feasibility of such an approach has not been examined explicitly. Here, we investigate the possibility of using short mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to delimit putative species in groups lacking an existing taxonomic framework. We focussed on poorly known tropical water beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae) from Madagascar and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) in the genus Canthon from the Neotropics. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation proved to be highly structured, with >95% of the observed variation existing between discrete sets of very closely related genotypes. Sequence variation in nuclear 28S rRNA among the same individuals was lower by at least an order of magnitude, but 16 different genotypes were found in water beetles and 12 genotypes in Canthon, differing from each other by a minimum of two base pairs. The distribution of these 28S rRNA genotypes in individuals exactly matched the distribution of mtDNA clusters, suggesting that mtDNA patterns were not misleading because of introgression. Moreover, in a few cases where sequence information was available in GenBank for morphologically defined species of Canthon, these matched some of the DNA-based clusters. These findings demonstrate that clusters of close relatives can be identified readily in the sequence variation obtained in field collected samples, and that these clusters are likely to correspond to either previously described or unknown species. The results suggest that DNA-assisted taxonomy will not require more than a short fragment of mtDNA to provide a largely accurate picture of species boundaries in these groups. Applied on a large scale, this DNA-based approach could greatly improve the rate of species discovery in the large assemblages of insects that remain undescribed.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                10 February 2020
                : 910
                : 93-129
                [1 ] Department of Biology, School of Science and Engineering, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines Ateneo de Manila University Quezon City Philippines
                [2 ] Museum of Zoology, Palais de Rumine, Place Riponne 6, CH-1014 Lausanne, Switzerland Museum of Zoology Lausanne Switzerland
                [3 ] Department of Ecology and Evolution, Biophore, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland University of Lausanne Lausanne Switzerland
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jhoana M. Garces ( jhoana.garces@ 123456obf.ateneo.edu )

                Academic editor: L. P.-da-Conceicoa

                Jhoana M. Garces, Michel Sartori, Hendrik Freitag

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Research Article
                Identification Key
                Far East


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