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      LC-MS/MS Estimation of the Anti-Cancer Agent Tandutinib Levels in Human Liver Microsomes: Metabolic Stability Evaluation Assay

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          Tandutinib (MLN518 or CT 53518) (TND) is a novel, oral, small-molecule inhibitor of type III receptor tyrosine kinases utilized for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

          Materials and Methods

          In silico prediction of hepatic drug metabolism for TND was determined using the StarDrop® WhichP450™ module to confirm its metabolic liability. Second, an efficient and accurate LC-MS/MS method was established for TND quantification to evaluate metabolic stability. TND and entrectinib (ENC) (internal standard; IS) were resolved using an isocratic elution system with a reversed stationary phase (C 8 column).


          The established LC-MS/MS method exhibited linearity (5–500 ng/mL) with r 2 ≥0.9999 in the human liver microsomes matrix. The method sensitivity was indicated by the limit of quantification (3.8 ng/mL), and reproducibility was revealed by inter- and intraday precision and accuracy (below 10.5%). TND metabolic stability estimation was calculated using intrinsic clearance (22.03 µL/min/mg) and in vitro half-life (29.0 min) values.


          TND exhibited a moderate extraction ratio indicative of good bioavailability. According to the literature, the approach developed in the present study is the first established LC-MS/MS method for assessing TND metabolic stability.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Physiological parameters in laboratory animals and humans.

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            Cell signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases.

            Recent structural studies of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have revealed unexpected diversity in the mechanisms of their activation by growth factor ligands. Strategies for inducing dimerization by ligand binding are surprisingly diverse, as are mechanisms that couple this event to activation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domains. As our understanding of these details becomes increasingly sophisticated, it provides an important context for therapeutically countering the effects of pathogenic RTK mutations in cancer and other diseases. Much remains to be learned, however, about the complex signaling networks downstream from RTKs and how alterations in these networks are translated into cellular responses.
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              DNMT3A and IDH mutations in acute myeloid leukemia and other myeloid malignancies: associations with prognosis and potential treatment strategies.

              The development of effective treatment strategies for most forms of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has languished for the past several decades. There are a number of reasons for this, but key among them is the considerable heterogeneity of this disease and the paucity of molecular markers that can be used to predict clinical outcomes and responsiveness to different therapies. The recent large-scale sequencing of AML genomes is now providing opportunities for patient stratification and personalized approaches to treatment that are based on individual mutational profiles. It is particularly notable that studies by The Cancer Genome Atlas and others have determined that 44% of patients with AML exhibit mutations in genes that regulate methylation of genomic DNA. In particular, frequent mutation has been observed in the genes encoding DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), as well as Tet oncogene family member 2. This review will summarize the incidence of these mutations, their impact on biochemical functions including epigenetic modification of genomic DNA and their potential usefulness as prognostic indicators. Importantly, the presence of DNMT3A, IDH1 or IDH2 mutations may confer sensitivity to novel therapeutic approaches, including the use of demethylating agents. Therefore, the clinical experience with decitabine and azacitidine in the treatment of patients harboring these mutations will be reviewed. Overall, we propose that understanding the role of these mutations in AML biology will lead to more rational therapeutic approaches targeting molecularly defined subtypes of the disease.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                23 October 2020
                : 14
                : 4439-4449
                [1 ]1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ali S Abdelhameed Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University , P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh11451, Saudi ArabiaTel +966 1146 70237Fax +966 1146 76220 Email asaber@ksu.edu.sa
                © 2020 Attwa et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 7, References: 42, Pages: 11
                Original Research


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