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      Predation history has no effect on lateralized behavior in Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora

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          Abstract

          Evolutionary biologists have grown increasingly interested in laterality, a phenomenon where bilaterally symmetrical organisms show a side bias in some trait. Lateralized behavior is particularly interesting because it is not necessarily tied to morphological asymmetry. What causes lateralized behavior remains largely unknown, although previous research in fishes suggest that fish might favor one eye over another to view potential food sources, mates, and to assess predation risk. Here we test the hypothesis that a history of predation risk predicts lateralized behavior in the livebearing fish Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora. To do this, we used a detour assay to test for eye bias when a focal fish approached various stimuli (predator, potential mate, novel object, and empty tank control). Contrary to our predictions, we found no differences in lateralized behavior between fish from populations that co-occurred with fish predators relative to those that do not co-occur with predators. In fact, we found no evidence for behavioral lateralization at all in response to any of the stimuli. We explore several possible explanations for why lateralized behavior is absent in this species, especially considering a large body of work in other livebearing fishes that shows that lateralized behavior does occur.

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          The evolution of brain lateralization: a game-theoretical analysis of population structure.

          In recent years, it has become apparent that behavioural and brain lateralization at the population level is the rule rather than the exception among vertebrates. The study of these phenomena has so far been the province of neurology and neuropsychology. Here, we show how such research can be integrated with evolutionary biology to understand lateralization more fully. In particular, we address the fact that, within a species, left- and right-type individuals often occur in proportions different from one-half (e.g. hand use in humans). The traditional explanations offered for lateralization of brain function (that it may avoid unnecessary duplication of neural circuitry and reduce interference between functions) cannot account for this fact, because increased individual efficiency is unrelated to the alignment of lateralization at the population level. A further puzzle is that such an alignment may even be disadvantageous, as it makes individual behaviour more predictable to other organisms. Here, we show that alignment of the direction of behavioural asymmetries in a population can arise as an evolutionarily stable strategy when individual asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. Brain and behavioural lateralization, as we know it in humans and other vertebrates, may have evolved under basically 'social' selection pressures.
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            The evolutionary psychology of left and right: costs and benefits of lateralization.

            Why do the left and right sides of the vertebrate brain play different functions? Having a lateralized brain, in which each hemisphere carries out different functions, is ubiquitous among vertebrates. The different specialization of the left and right side of the brain may increase brain efficiency--and some evidence for that is reported here. However, lateral biases due to brain lateralization (such as preferences in the use of a limb or, in animals with laterally placed eyes, of a visual hemifield) usually occur at the population level, with most individuals showing similar direction of bias. Individual brain efficiency does not require the alignment of lateralization in the population. Why then are not left--and right-type individuals equally common? Not only humans, but most vertebrates show a similar pattern. For instance, in the paper I report evidence that most toads, chickens, and fish react faster when a predator approaches from the left. I argue that invoking individual brain efficiency (lateralization may increase fitness), evolutionary chance or direct genetic mechanisms cannot explain this widespread pattern. Instead, using concepts from mathematical theory of games, I show that alignment of lateralization at the population level may arise as an "evolutionarily stable strategy" when individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. Thus, the population structure of lateralization may result from genes specifying the direction of asymmetries which have been selected under "social" pressures.
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              An Experimental Study on the Effects of Predation Risk and Feeding Regime on the Mating Behavior of the Water Strider

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                PLOS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                15 February 2023
                2023
                : 18
                : 2
                : e0280900
                Affiliations
                [001] Department of Biology, Evolutionary Ecology Laboratories, BYU Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States of America
                University of Iceland, ICELAND
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5950-6511
                Article
                PONE-D-22-06171
                10.1371/journal.pone.0280900
                9931090
                36791092
                a4f5856e-9afa-45f1-9b74-2c1d04049f28
                © 2023 Callaway et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 1 March 2022
                : 11 January 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Pages: 10
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100012383, Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University;
                Award ID: CURA
                Award Recipient :
                This work was funded by Brigham Young University College of Life Sciences, College Undergraduate Research Awards of $3,000 each to Maren Callaway and Erik S. Johnson.
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