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      Central and Paracentral Visual Field Defects and Driving Abilities

      ,

      Ophthalmologica

      S. Karger AG

      Paracentral scotoma, Driving abilities, Visual field defects, central, paracentral

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          Abstract

          The effect of central and paracentral visual field defects on driving abilities has until now received little attention. To date studies and surveys have concentrated on visual acuity and peripheral field loss. Here we summarise for the first time those diseases causing central visual field defects likely to be associated with binocular visual acuity adequate for driving.

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          Most cited references 99

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          Causes and frequency of blindness in patients with intraocular inflammatory disease.

          Uveitis, an intraocular inflammatory disease, is a significant cause of visual impairment. It is not known how many patients with uveitis will retain visual acuity and how many develop visual impairment or even blindness. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of blindness in patients with uveitis and, more specifically, to identify the clinical profile of patients at risk for visual loss. A cross sectional and retrospective study of 582 patients with uveitis who visited the ophthalmology departments of two university hospitals in the Netherlands was performed. Within the group of 582 patients, 203 (35%) exhibited blindness or visual impairment; bilateral legal blindness developed in 22 (4%) patients, 26 (4.5%) had one blind eye with visual impairment of the other, and nine (1.5%) had bilateral visual impairment. Unilateral blindness developed in 82 (14%) patients, whereas 64 (11%) exhibited unilateral visual impairment. The most important cause of both blindness and visual impairment was cystoid macular oedema (29% and 41%, respectively). Complications of uveitis were encountered in more than half of the patients and 23% underwent one or more surgical procedures. When the patients were subdivided according to anatomical site, those with panuveitis had the worst visual prognosis. The systemic diseases associated with a poor visual prognosis were juvenile chronic arthritis and sarcoidosis. Ocular toxoplasmosis was the most frequent cause of unilateral visual loss. Cystoid macular oedema is the most frequent complication of uveitis and its occurrence plays a decisive role in the visual outcome of this disease.
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            Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

            Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial genetic disease that preferentially causes blindness in young adult males, affecting about 1 in 25 000 of the British population. It is characterised by bilateral subacute loss of central vision owing to focal degeneration of the retinal ganglion cell layer and optic nerve. Over 95% of LHON cases are primarily the result of one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations, G3460A, G11778A, and T14484C, which all involve genes encoding complex I subunits of the respiratory chain. An intriguing feature of LHON is that only approximately 50% of males and approximately 10% of females who harbour a pathogenic mtDNA mutation actually develop the optic neuropathy. This marked incomplete penetrance and gender bias imply that additional mitochondrial and/or nuclear genetic factors must be modulating the phenotypic expression of LHON. It is also likely that environmental factors contribute to the onset of visual failure. However, these secondary precipitating factors remain poorly defined at present. In this review, we describe the natural history of this optic nerve disorder and highlight issues relating to clinical diagnosis, management, and genetic counselling. We also discuss the findings of recently published studies and the light they shed on the complex aetiology and pathophysiology of LHON.
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              Causes and severity of ischemic stroke in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis.

              Therapeutic trials generally have not distinguished outcomes of stroke according to cause. To determine whether stroke and subsequent disability was of large-artery, lacunar, or cardioembolic origin in patients with different degrees of symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Observational study of prospective data collected from the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial between 1987 and 1997. A total of 2885 patients from 106 sites in the United States and abroad (median age, 67 years; 70% male) who had symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis. Risk of stroke from each of the 3 causes at 5 years by territory and degree of stenosis. During an average follow-up of 5 years, 749 patients had 1039 strokes, including 112 of cardioembolic, 211 of lacunar, 698 of large-artery, 17 of primary intracerebral hemorrhage, and 1 of subarachnoid hemorrhage origin. The 5-year risk of first stroke after entry into the trial in any territory was 2.6% of cardioembolic cause, 6.9% of lacunar cause, and 19.7% of large-artery cause. The proportion of cardioembolic strokes in the territory of the symptomatic artery was 12.0% and 6.9% in 60% to 69% and 70% to 99% arterial stenosis, respectively; large-artery strokes predominated (78.4%) at 70% to 99% arterial stenosis. With 70% to 99% arterial stenosis, the proportion of strokes of cardioembolic and lacunar origin was 43.5% and 21.6% in asymptomatic and symptomatic arteries, respectively. A total of 67.6% of cardioembolic, 16.7% of lacunar, and 33.0% of large-artery strokes in the territory of the asymptomatic artery were disabling or fatal. Our data suggest that approximately 20% and 45% of strokes in the territory of symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid arteries with 70% to 99% stenosis, respectively, are unrelated to carotid stenosis. The cause of subsequent strokes in similar types of patients should be considered when making treatment decisions involving carotid endarterectomy for patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis, since lacunar and cardioembolic strokes cannot be prevented by endarterectomy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2005
                August 2005
                09 July 2008
                : 219
                : 4
                : 191-201
                Affiliations
                Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, London, UK
                Article
                85727 Ophthalmologica 2005;219:191–201
                10.1159/000085727
                16088237
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 219, Pages: 11
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