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      Validation of the spanish version of the multiple sclerosis international quality of life (musiqol) questionnaire


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          The Multiple Sclerosis International Quality Of Life (MusiQoL) questionnaire, a 31-item, multidimensional, self-administrated questionnaire that is available in 14 languages including Spanish, has been validated using a large international sample. We investigated the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of MusiQoL in Spain.


          Consecutive patients with different types and severities of multiple sclerosis (MS) were recruited from 22 centres across Spain. All patients completed the MusiQoL questionnaire, the 36-Item Short Form (SF-36) health survey, and a symptoms checklist at baseline and 21 days later. External validity, internal consistency, reliability and reproducibility were tested.


          A total of 224 Spanish patients were evaluated. Dimensions of MusiQoL generally demonstrated a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.70-0.92 for all but two MusiQoL domain scores). External validity testing revealed that the MusiQoL index score correlated significantly with all SF-36 dimension scores (Pearson's correlation: 0.46-0.76), reproducibility was satisfactory (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.60-0.91), acceptability was high, and the time taken to complete the 31-item questionnaire was reasonable (mean [standard deviation]: 9.8 [11.8] minutes).


          The Spanish version of the MusiQoL questionnaire appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring quality of life in patients with MS in Spain and constitutes a useful instrument to measure health-related quality of life in the clinical setting.

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          Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests

          Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334
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            Predicting quality of life in multiple sclerosis: accounting for physical disability, fatigue, cognition, mood disorder, personality, and behavior change.

            Health-related quality of life (HQOL) is poor in multiple sclerosis (MS) but the clinical precipitants of the problem are not well understood. Previous correlative studies demonstrated relationships between various clinical parameters and diminished HQOL in MS. Unfortunately, these studies failed to account for multiple predictors in the same analysis. We endeavored to determine what clinical parameters account for most variance in predicting HQOL, and employability, while accounting for disease course, physical disability, fatigue, cognition, mood disorder, personality, and behavior disorder. In 120 MS patients, we measured HQOL (MS Quality of Life-54) and vocational status (employed vs. disabled) and then conducted detailed clinical testing. Data were analyzed by linear and logistic regression methods. MS patients reported lower HQOL (p<0.001) and were more likely to be disabled (45% of patients vs. 0 controls). Physical HQOL was predicted by fatigue, depression, and physical disability. Mental HQOL was associated with only depression and fatigue. In contrast, vocational status was predicted by three cognitive tests, conscientiousness, and disease duration (p<0.05). Thus, for the first time, we predicted HQOL in MS while accounting for measures from these many clinical domains. We conclude that self-report HQOL indices are most strongly predicted by measures of depression, whereas vocational status is predicted primarily by objective measures of cognitive function. The findings highlight core clinical problems that merit early identification and further research regarding the development of effective treatment.
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              The problem of quality of life in medicine.

              The use of the term "quality of life" to encompass the values and perceptions of patients has created doubt, confusion, and misunderstanding among practitioners, researchers, policymakers, and patients. The principal reason for this state of affairs is that a clear conceptual basis for quality-of-life measures is lacking. In this article, the current rationale for quality-of-life measurement in the health field is examined, and the drawbacks of the various models being used are outlined. Our suggestion is that quality of life as an outcome could be explored more clearly (ie, defined) if quality of life were replaced with a more easily handled notion such as that of "subjective health status." However, the idea that the patient's perspective is as valid as that of the clinician when it comes to evaluating outcomes has a great deal of legitimacy and should certainly not be abandoned.

                Author and article information

                BMC Neurol
                BMC Neurology
                BioMed Central
                18 October 2011
                : 11
                : 127
                [1 ]Institute of Clinical Neurosciences. Service of Neurology. Hospital Regional Universitario Carlos Haya, Avda. Carlos Haya s/n, 29010 Málaga, Spain
                [2 ]Institute of Clinical Neurosciences. Service of Neurophysiology. Hospital Regional Universitario Carlos Haya, Avda. Carlos Haya s/n, 29010 Málaga, Spain
                [3 ]Department of Public Health, EA3279 Research Unit, University Hospital, Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France
                [4 ]Global Medical Affairs Neurology, Merck Serono S.A., 9 Chemin des Mines, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland
                Copyright ©2011 Fernández et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 26 June 2011
                : 18 October 2011
                Research Article



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