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      The smut fungi of Greenland

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          The first taxonomic treatment of the smut fungi in Greenland is provided. A total of 43 species in 11 genera are treated and illustrated by photographs of sori, microphotographs of spores in LM and SEM, and distribution maps. Two species, Anthracoidea pseudofoetidae and Urocystis tothii , are recorded as new from North America. Thirteen species, Anthracoidea altera , A. capillaris , A. limosa , A. liroi , A. pseudofoetidae , A. scirpoideae , A. turfosa , Microbotryum lagerheimii , M. stellariae , Schizonella elynae , Stegocintractia luzulae , Urocystis fischeri , and U. tothii , are reported for the first time from Greenland. Three new fungus-host combinations, Anthracoidea capillaris on Carex boecheriana , Anthracoidea pseudofoetidae on Carex maritima , and Urocystis tothii on Juncus biglumis , are given. Five plant species are reported as new hosts of smut fungi in Greenland, namely, Carex nigra for Anthracoidea heterospora , C. canescens for Anthracoidea karii , C. fuliginosa subsp. misandra for Anthracoidea misandrae , C. maritima for Orphanomyces arcticus , and C. fuliginosa subsp. misandra for Schizonella melanogramma . Three species, Microbotryum violaceum s. str. (recorded as ‘ Ustilago violacea ’), Urocystis anemones , and U. junci , which were previously reported from Greenland, are considered wrongly identified. Additional distribution records are given for 12 species from Greenland: Anthracoidea bigelowii , A. caricis , A. elynae , A. lindebergiae , A. misandrae , A. nardinae , A. rupestris , A. scirpi , Schizonella melanogramma , Stegocintractia hyperborea , Urocystis agropyri , and U. sorosporioides . The most numerous distribution groups are the following: circumpolar–alpine and Arctic–alpine species – 14; circumboreal–polar species – 10; and circumpolar and Arctic species – 6. The most widely distributed smut fungi in Greenland were Anthracoidea bigelowii , A. elynae , Microbotryum bistortarum , and M. vinosum . Most species were found in the High Arctic zone (29 species), while from the Low Arctic zone and the Subarctic zone, 26 and 19 species were known, respectively. Ten species, Anthracoidea bigelowii , A. capillaris , A. elynae , Microbotryum bistortarum , M. koenigiae , M. pustulatum , M. silenes-acaulis , M. vinosum , Schizonella elynae , and Urocystis sorosporioides , were recorded from all three zones. Only plants belonging to six families, Cyperaceae , Poaceae , Juncaceae , Ranunculaceae , Caryophyllaceae , and Polygonaceae , out of a total of 55 in the flora of Greenland, hosted smut fungi. Cyperaceae was the plant family with most host species (23). Carex was the genus with the highest number of host species (22). The total number of the host plants (45 species) was 8.5 % out of a total of 532 vascular plants in the flora of Greenland. A new combination in Carex , C. macroprophylla subsp. subfilifolia , is proposed for Kobresia filifolia subsp. subfilifolia .

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          A taxonomic backbone for the global synthesis of species diversity in the angiosperm orderCaryophyllales

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            Distribution of the anther-smut pathogen Microbotryum on species of the Caryophyllaceae

            Summary Understanding disease distributions is of fundamental and applied importance, yet few studies benefit from integrating broad sampling with ecological and phylogenetic data. Here, anther-smut disease, caused by the fungus Microbotryum, was assessed using herbarium specimens of Silene and allied genera of the Caryophyllaceae. A total of 42 000 herbarium specimens were examined, and plant geographical distributions and morphological and life history characteristics were tested as correlates of disease occurrence. Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to determine the association between disease and plant life-span. Disease was found on 391 herbarium specimens from 114 species and all continents with native Silene. Anther smut occurred exclusively on perennial plants, consistent with the pathogen requiring living hosts to overwinter. The disease was estimated to occur in 80% of perennial species of Silene and allied genera. The correlation between plant life-span and disease was highly significant while controlling for the plant phylogeny, but the disease was not correlated with differences in floral morphology. Using resources available in natural history collections, this study illustrates how disease distribution can be determined, not by restriction to a clade of susceptible hosts or to a limited geographical region, but by association with host life-span, a trait that has undergone frequent evolutionary transitions.
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              Trans-Atlantic dispersal and large-scale lack of genetic structure in the circumpolar, arctic-alpine sedge Carex bigelowii s. l. (Cyperaceae).

              Paradoxically, several of the ecologically most important plant groups in the Arctic are little understood in terms of taxonomy and biogeographic history. The circumpolar Carex bigelowii s. l. (Cyperaceae) is abundant in the Arctic and is one of the most complicated arctic plant groups. While its ecology and population genetics have been extensively studied, its taxonomy is largely unexplored. We analyzed the large-scale geographical structuring of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) covering most of the distribution range. We detected high levels of genetic variation, most (66%) within populations, and a fairly weak genetic structure. Only the Central Asian populations, referred to as C. orbicularis, were strongly divergent. For the remaining populations, Bayesian clustering separated three distinct clusters (one European, one amphi-Atlantic, and one broadly amphi-Beringian), probably reflecting different major glacial refugia and recent transoceanic dispersal. The isolated central European populations were most closely related to those from a larger distribution area in northern Europe. Differences in genetic diversity suggest that the Alpine and Tatra populations have experienced strong bottlenecks, whereas the Krkonoše population may have been part of a continuous distribution area during the cold stages of the Pleistocene. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our results for a uniform, range-wide taxonomic concept.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                05 March 2020
                : 64
                : 1-164
                [1 ] Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 23 Acad. G. Bonchev St., 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
                [2 ] IUCN SSC Rusts and Smuts Specialist Group, Sofia, Bulgaria
                [3 ] Natural History
                [4 ] Museum of Denmark, Øster Voldgade 5–7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Teodor T. Denchev ( ttdenchev@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: M. Thines

                Teodor T. Denchev, Henning Knudsen, Cvetomir M. Denchev

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                This study was funded by the Program for Support of Young Researchers and PhD Students at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Grant no. DFNP-17-93/28.07.2017), and received support from the SYNTHESYS Project http://www.synthesys.info/ which was financed by the European Community Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” Program at the Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen (Grant no. DK-TAF-5927), the Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria (Grant no. AT-TAF-6810), and the National Museum of Natural History, Paris (Grant no. FR-TAF-6628).
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