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      Contemporary Concepts in Osseointegration of Dental Implants: A Review

      review-article
      1 , 2 , 2 ,
      BioMed Research International
      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          In a society highly conscious of esthetics, prosthetic rehabilitation of lost teeth with tissue-integrated implants has gained wide acceptance and demand by patients and clinicians. The backbone of these tissue-integrated implants is the biotechnical process of osseointegration. Although the concept has been introduced and discussed for ages, the deepening knowledge about its cellular and molecular mechanisms has led the researchers to borrow further into the factors influencing the process of osseointegration. This has aided in the hastening and improving the process of osseointegration by exploiting several, even the minutest, details and events taking place in this natural process. Recently, due to the high esthetic expectations of the patients, the implants are being loaded immediately, which demands a high degree of implant stability. Implant stability, especially secondary stability, largely depends on bone formation and integration of implants to the osseous tissues. Various factors that influence the rate and success of osseointegration can either be categorized as those related to implant characteristics like the physical and chemical macro- and microdesign of implants or the bone characteristics like the amount and quality of bone and the local and systemic host conditions, or the time or protocol followed for the functional loading of the dental implant. To address the shortcomings in osseointegration due to any of the factors, it is mandatory that continuous and reliable monitoring of the status of osseointegration is done. This review attempts to encompass the mechanisms, factors affecting, and methods to assess osseointegration, followed by a discussion on the recent advances and future perspectives in dental implantology to enhance the process of osseointegration. The review was aimed at igniting the inquisitive minds to usher further the development of technology that enhances osseointegration.

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          Mediation of biomaterial-cell interactions by adsorbed proteins: a review.

          An appropriate cellular response to implanted surfaces is essential for tissue regeneration and integration. It is well described that implanted materials are immediately coated with proteins from blood and interstitial fluids, and it is through this adsorbed layer that cells sense foreign surfaces. Hence, it is the adsorbed proteins, rather than the surface itself, to which cells initially respond. Diverse studies using a range of materials have demonstrated the pivotal role of extracellular adhesion proteins--fibronectin and vitronectin in particular--in cell adhesion, morphology, and migration. These events underlie the subsequent responses required for tissue repair, with the nature of cell surface interactions contributing to survival, growth, and differentiation. The pattern in which adhesion proteins and other bioactive molecules adsorb thus elicits cellular reactions specific to the underlying physicochemical properties of the material. Accordingly, in vitro studies generally demonstrate favorable cell responses to charged, hydrophilic surfaces, corresponding to superior adsorption and bioactivity of adhesion proteins. This review illustrates the mediation of cell responses to biomaterials by adsorbed proteins, in the context of osteoblasts and selected materials used in orthopedic implants and bone tissue engineering. It is recognized, however, that the periimplant environment in vivo will differ substantially from the cell-biomaterial interface in vitro. Hence, one of the key issues yet to be resolved is that of the interface composition actually encountered by osteoblasts within the sequence of inflammation and bone regeneration.
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            Osseointegrated titanium implants. Requirements for ensuring a long-lasting, direct bone-to-implant anchorage in man.

            A total of 2895 threaded, cylindrical titanium implants have been inserted into the mandible or the maxilla and 124 similar implants have been installed in the tibial, temporal or iliac bones in man for various bone restorative procedures. The titanium screws were implanted without the use of cement, using a meticulous technique aiming at osseointegration--a direct contact between living bone and implant. Thirty-eight stable and integrated screws were removed for various reasons from 18 patients. The interface zone between bone and implant was investigated using X-rays, SEM, TEM and histology. The SEM study showed a very close spatial relationship between titanium and bone. The pattern of the anchorage of collagen filaments to titanium appeared to be similar to that of Sharpey's fibres to bone. No wear products were seen in the bone or soft tissues in spite of implant loading times up to 90 months. The soft tissues were also closely adhered to the titanium implant, thereby forming a biological seal, preventing microorganism infiltration along the implant. The implants in many cases had been allowed to permanently penetrate the gingiva and skin. This caused no adverse tissue effects. An intact bone-implant interface was analyzed by TEM, revealing a direct bone-to-implant interface contact also at the electron microscopic level, thereby suggesting the possibility of a direct chemical bonding between bone and titanium. It is concluded that the technique of osseointegration is a reliable type of cement-free bone anchorage for permanent prosthetic tissue substitutes. At present, this technique is being tried in clinical joint reconstruction. In order to achieve and to maintain such a direct contact between living bone and implant, threaded, unalloyed titanium screws of defined finish and geometry were inserted using a delicate surgical technique and were allowed to heal in situ, without loading, for a period of at least 3--4 months.
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              Influence of surface characteristics on bone integration of titanium implants. A histomorphometric study in miniature pigs.

              The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different surface characteristics on bone integration of titanium implants. Hollow-cylinder implants with six different surfaces were placed in the metaphyses of the tibia and femur in six miniature pigs. After 3 and 6 weeks, the implants with surrounding bone were removed and analyzed in undecalcified transverse sections. The histologic examination revealed direct bone-implant contact for all implants. However, the morphometric analyses demonstrated significant differences in the percentage of bone-implant contact, when measured in cancellous bone. Electropolished as well as the sandblasted and acid pickled (medium grit; HF/HNO3) implant surfaces had the lowest percentage of bone contact with mean values ranging between 20 and 25%. Sandblasted implants with a large grit and titanium plasma-sprayed implants demonstrated 30-40% mean bone contact. The highest extent of bone-implant interface was observed in sandblasted and acid attacked surfaces (large grit; HCl/H2SO4) with mean values of 50-60%, and hydroxylapatite (HA)-coated implants with 60-70%. However, the HA coating consistently revealed signs of resorption. It can be concluded that the extent of bone-implant interface is positively correlated with an increasing roughness of the implant surface.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2022
                14 June 2022
                : 2022
                : 6170452
                Affiliations
                1Master Degree Student in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (International Program), Walailak University International College of Dentistry, Walailak University, 87 Ranong 2 Road, Nakhon Chai Si, Dusit, Bangkok 10300, Thailand
                2Department of Clinical Dentistry, Walailak University International College of Dentistry, Walailak University, 87 Ranong 2 Road, Nakhon Chai Si, Dusit, Bangkok 10300, Thailand
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: João Paulo Mendes Tribst

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1181-7513
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3854-667X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3359-9032
                Article
                10.1155/2022/6170452
                9213185
                35747499
                a5471f9c-e0ab-46d8-9537-80c3c6eafe14
                Copyright © 2022 Chandrashekhar Pandey et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 7 April 2022
                : 26 May 2022
                Categories
                Review Article

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