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      Antioxidant and antidiabetic compounds identification in several Indonesian underutilized Zingiberaceae spices using SPME-GC/MS-based volatilomics and in silico methods

      a , a , a , a , e , c , d , a , b , c , *
      Food Chemistry: X
      α-Glucosidase inhibitor, Antioxidant, Volatiles, SPME-GC/MS, Metabolomics, GC/MS, Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, SPME, Solid phase micro extraction, PCA, Principal component analysis, OPLS, Orthogonal projection to the least square, AGI, α-glucosidase inhibitor, TPC, Total phenolic content, TFC, Total flavonoid content, DPPH, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, FRAP, Ferric reducing antioxidant property, CUPRAC, Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, CA, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb, CZ, Curcuma zedoria Roscoe, ZC, Zingiber purpureum Roscoe, ZO, Zingiber ottensii Val., BR, Boesenbergia rotunda L. Mansf., CH, Curcuma heyneana Val. & Zijp, CP, Curcuma purpurascens Blume, CT, Curcuma petiolata Roxb, ZA, Zingiber aromaticum Val., ZZ, Zingiber zerumpet L. Roscoe ex Sm., AC, Amomum compactum Sol. ex Maton, AM, Alpinia malaccensis (Burm.f.) Roscoe

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          • Volatile compounds linked with antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of 12 Zingiberaceae spices were identified using SPME-GC/MS and multivariate data analysis.

          • Eucalyptol strongly correlated with α-glucosidase inhibitor and DPPH antioxidant activity.

          • o-Cymene and terpinen-4-ol strongly correlated with FRAP and CUPRAC antioxidant activity.

          • In silico study supported the results of the in-vitro experiment.


          This study aimed to identify compounds in 12 minor Zingiberaceae spices grown in Indonesia linked with in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitor and antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, CUPRAC) activities using SPME-GC/MS volatilomics. The results illustrated that Zingiber aromaticum Val., Alpinia malaccensis (Burm.f.) Roscoe, Amomum compactum Sol. ex Maton, and Zingiber purpureum Roscoe had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitor and DPPH, FRAP, CUPRAC antioxidant activities, respectively. Also, the total phenolic content positively influenced DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC antioxidant activities. The strongest positive correlation with α-glucosidase inhibitor and DPPH antioxidant activities was found in eucalyptol; whereas o-cymene and terpinen-4-ol had the strongest correlations with FRAP and CUPRAC antioxidants, respectively. Furthermore, the molecular docking analysis revealed that all compounds with a strong correlation with α-glucosidase inhibitor activity (based on their OPLS VIP score) had binding energies (−5.06 – −6.26 kcal/mol) close to Acarbose (−10.11 kcal/mol). Thus, this study provided vital information on the volatile compounds in underutilized spices associated with their health beneficial properties.

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          Most cited references36

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          Estimation of total phenolic content and other oxidation substrates in plant tissues using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.

          Non-structural phenolic compounds perform a variety of functions in plants, including acting as antioxidants. We describe a microplate-adapted colorimetric total phenolics assay that utilizes Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) reagent. The F-C assay relies on the transfer of electrons in alkaline medium from phenolic compounds to phosphomolybdic/phosphotungstic acid complexes, which are determined spectroscopically at 765 nm. Although the electron transfer reaction is not specific for phenolic compounds, the extraction procedure eliminates approximately 85% of ascorbic acid and other potentially interfering compounds. This assay is performed in microcentrifuge tubes and assessed in a 96-well plate reader. At least 64 samples can be processed in 1 d.
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            Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices: Antioxidant activity and health effects – A review

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              Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration.


                Author and article information

                Food Chem X
                Food Chem X
                Food Chemistry: X
                16 March 2022
                30 June 2022
                16 March 2022
                : 14
                : 100285
                [a ]Department of Food Science and Technology, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia
                [b ]Tropical Biopharmaca Research Center, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia
                [c ]Halal Science Center, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia
                [d ]Department of Chemistry, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia
                [e ]Department of Food Technology and Center of Excellence for Local Food Innovation, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University, Serang, Indonesia
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Department of Food Science and Technology, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia. nancy_dewi@ 123456apps.ipb.ac.id
                S2590-1575(22)00083-9 100285
                © 2022 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 3 November 2021
                : 13 March 2022
                : 14 March 2022
                Research Article

                α-glucosidase inhibitor,antioxidant,volatiles,spme-gc/ms,metabolomics,gc/ms, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,spme, solid phase micro extraction,pca, principal component analysis,opls, orthogonal projection to the least square,agi, α-glucosidase inhibitor,tpc, total phenolic content,tfc, total flavonoid content,dpph, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl,frap, ferric reducing antioxidant property,cuprac, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity,ca, curcuma aeruginosa roxb,cz, curcuma zedoria roscoe,zc, zingiber purpureum roscoe,zo, zingiber ottensii val.,br, boesenbergia rotunda l. mansf.,ch, curcuma heyneana val. & zijp,cp, curcuma purpurascens blume,ct, curcuma petiolata roxb,za, zingiber aromaticum val.,zz, zingiber zerumpet l. roscoe ex sm.,ac, amomum compactum sol. ex maton,am, alpinia malaccensis (burm.f.) roscoe


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