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      South-East Asia is the center of origin, diversity and dispersion of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae


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          • Inferring invasion routes and identifying reservoirs of diversity of plant pathogens are essential in proposing new strategies for their control. Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungus responsible for rice blast disease, has invaded all rice growing areas. Virulent genotypes regularly (re)emerge, causing rapid resistance breakdowns. However, the world-wide genetic subdivision of M. oryzae populations on rice and its past history of invasion have never been elucidated.

          • In order to investigate the centers of diversity, origin and migration of M. oryzae on rice, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 55 populations from 15 countries.

          • Three genetic clusters were identified world-wide. Asia was the center of diversity and the origin of most migrations to other continents. In Asia, two centers of diversity were revealed in the Himalayan foothills: South China–Laos–North Thailand, and western Nepal. Sexual reproduction persisted only in the South China–Laos–North Thailand region, which was identified as the putative center of origin of all M. oryzae populations on rice.

          • Our results suggest a scenario of early evolution of M. oryzae on rice that matches the past history of rice domestication. This study confirms that crop domestication may have considerable influence on the pestification process of natural enemies.

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          Most cited references 97

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          Reconstructing routes of invasion using genetic data: why, how and so what?

          Detailed knowledge about the geographical pathways followed by propagules from their source to the invading populations--referred to here as routes of invasion-provides information about the history of the invasion process and the origin and genetic composition of the invading populations. The reconstruction of invasion routes is required for defining and testing different hypotheses concerning the environmental and evolutionary factors responsible for biological invasions. In practical terms, it facilitates the design of strategies for controlling or preventing invasions. Most of our knowledge about the introduction routes of invasive species is derived from historical and observational data, which are often sparse, incomplete and, sometimes, misleading. In this context, population genetics has proved a useful approach for reconstructing routes of introduction, highlighting the complexity and the often counterintuitive nature of the true story. This approach has proved particularly useful since the recent development of new model-based methods, such as approximate Bayesian computation, making it possible to make quantitative inferences in the complex evolutionary scenarios typically encountered in invasive species. In this review, we summarize some of the fundamental aspects of routes of invasion, explain why the reconstruction of these routes is useful for addressing both practical and theoretical questions, and comment on the various reconstruction methods available. Finally, we consider the main insights obtained to date from studies of invasion routes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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            Molecular Evolutionay Genetics

             M Nei,  N Nei,  S.A. Gerbi (1987)
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              Standardizing methods to address clonality in population studies.

              Although clonal species are dominant in many habitats, from unicellular organisms to plants and animals, ecological and particularly evolutionary studies on clonal species have been strongly limited by the difficulty in assessing the number, size and longevity of genetic individuals within a population. The development of molecular markers has allowed progress in this area, and although allozymes remain of limited use due to their typically low level of polymorphism, more polymorphic markers have been discovered during the last decades, supplying powerful tools to overcome the problem of clonality assessment. However, population genetics studies on clonal organisms lack a standardized framework to assess clonality, and to adapt conventional data analyses to account for the potential bias due to the possible replication of the same individuals in the sampling. Moreover, existing studies used a variety of indices to describe clonal diversity and structure such that comparison among studies is difficult at best. We emphasize the need for standardizing studies on clonal organisms, and particularly on clonal plants, in order to clarify the way clonality is taken into account in sampling designs and data analysis, and to allow further comparison of results reported in distinct studies. In order to provide a first step towards a standardized framework to address clonality in population studies, we review, on the basis of a thorough revision of the literature on population structure of clonal plants and of a complementary revision on other clonal organisms, the indices and statistics used so far to estimate genotypic or clonal diversity and to describe clonal structure in plants. We examine their advantages and weaknesses as well as various conceptual issues associated with statistical analyses of population genetics data on clonal organisms. We do so by testing them on results from simulations, as well as on two empirical data sets of microsatellites of the seagrasses Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa. Finally, we also propose a selection of new indices and methods to estimate clonal diversity and describe clonal structure in a way that should facilitate comparison between future studies on clonal plants, most of which may be of interest for clonal organisms in general.

                Author and article information

                New Phytol
                New Phytol
                The New Phytologist
                BlackWell Publishing Ltd (Oxford, UK )
                March 2014
                10 December 2013
                : 201
                : 4
                : 1440-1456
                [1 ]CIRAD, UMR BGPI TA A54/K, F 34398, Montpellier, France
                [2 ]INRA, UMR BGPI TA A54/K, F 34398, Montpellier, France
                Author notes
                Author for correspondence:, Didier Tharreau Tel: +33 4 99 62 48 39 Email: tharreau@ 123456cirad.fr
                © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


                Plant science & Botany

                center of origin, domestication, magnaporthe, migration, population, rice


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