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      The Contribution of French-SpeakingScientists to the Origins of Renal Physiologyand Pathophysiology (1790–1910)

      American Journal of Nephrology

      S. Karger AG

      Edema, Urea, Potassium, Uremia, Lesion

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          Abstract

          Some contributions: (1) urinary urea, its chemical composition and physiological meaning, Fourcroy and Vauquelin (1790–1808); (2) in binephrectomized animals blood urea is high and chemically identical to that of urine, Prevost and Dumas (1821); (3) urea level in renal vein blood is 50% of that in the arteries, Picard (1856); (4) retained potassium is the uremic poison, Feltz and Ritter (1881); (5) polyuria induced by intravenous injections of sugars or urea, Richet and Moutard Martin (1880); is the kidney in command of the concentration of the blood? Using cryoscopy, Hédon got the clue, the osmotic load (1900); (6) methylene dye excretion measures the global renal function and thus the degree of renal failure, Achard and Castaigne (1897); (7) the disentanglement of chronic uremia and edema, Widal and Achard (1900–1910); (8) evaluation of the global renal function by the ratio plasma urea/urine urea output, Ambard’s Constant (1905), initial step of the concept of clearance; (9) a circulating nephropoietic factor in one-kidney animals, Carnot (1910). In bled animals he also disclosed a hemopoietic factor which later became the renal erythropoietin.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          AJN
          Am J Nephrol
          10.1159/issn.0250-8095
          American Journal of Nephrology
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-6855-5
          978-3-318-00128-0
          0250-8095
          1421-9670
          1999
          April 1999
          23 April 1999
          : 19
          : 2
          : 274-281
          Affiliations
          Académie Nationale de Médecine, Paris, France
          Article
          13461 Am J Nephrol 1999;19:274–281
          10.1159/000013461
          10213828
          © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          References: 54, Pages: 8
          Product
          Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/13461
          Categories
          Origins of Renal Physiology (Dedicated to Carl Gottschalk)

          Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

          Edema, Urea, Lesion, Potassium, Uremia

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