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      Sodium Intake and Hypertension


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          The close relationship between hypertension and dietary sodium intake is widely recognized and supported by several studies. A reduction in dietary sodium not only decreases the blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension, but is also associated with a reduction in morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Prolonged modest reduction in salt intake induces a relevant fall in blood pressure in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals, irrespective of sex and ethnic group, with larger falls in systolic blood pressure for larger reductions in dietary salt. The high sodium intake and the increase in blood pressure levels are related to water retention, increase in systemic peripheral resistance, alterations in the endothelial function, changes in the structure and function of large elastic arteries, modification in sympathetic activity, and in the autonomic neuronal modulation of the cardiovascular system. In this review, we have focused on the effects of sodium intake on vascular hemodynamics and their implication in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

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          Effect of longer term modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials

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            Dual role of matrix metalloproteinases (matrixins) in intimal thickening and atherosclerotic plaque rupture.

            Intimal thickening, the accumulation of cells and extracellular matrix within the inner vessel wall, is a physiological response to mechanical injury, increased wall stress, or chemical insult (e.g., atherosclerosis). If excessive, it can lead to the obstruction of blood flow and tissue ischemia. Together with expansive or constrictive remodeling, the extent of intimal expansion determines final lumen size and vessel wall thickness. Plaque rupture represents a failure of intimal remodeling, where the fibrous cap overlying an atheromatous core of lipid undergoes catastrophic mechanical breakdown. Plaque rupture promotes coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction, the most prevalent cause of premature death in advanced societies. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can act together to degrade the major components of the vascular extracellular matrix. All cells present in the normal and diseased blood vessel wall upregulate and activate MMPs in a multistep fashion driven in part by soluble cytokines and cell-cell interactions. Activation of MMP proforms requires other MMPs or other classes of protease. MMP activation contributes to intimal growth and vessel wall remodeling in response to injury, most notably by promoting migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. A broader spectrum and/or higher level of MMP activation, especially associated with inflammation, could contribute to pathological matrix destruction and plaque rupture. Inhibiting the activity of specific MMPs or preventing their upregulation could ameliorate intimal thickening and prevent myocardial infarction.
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              Immune cells control skin lymphatic electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure.

              The skin interstitium sequesters excess Na+ and Cl- in salt-sensitive hypertension. Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) cells are recruited to the skin, sense the hypertonic electrolyte accumulation in skin, and activate the tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TONEBP, also known as NFAT5) to initiate expression and secretion of VEGFC, which enhances electrolyte clearance via cutaneous lymph vessels and increases eNOS expression in blood vessels. It is unclear whether this local MPS response to osmotic stress is important to systemic blood pressure control. Herein, we show that deletion of TonEBP in mouse MPS cells prevents the VEGFC response to a high-salt diet (HSD) and increases blood pressure. Additionally, an antibody that blocks the lymph-endothelial VEGFC receptor, VEGFR3, selectively inhibited MPS-driven increases in cutaneous lymphatic capillary density, led to skin Cl- accumulation, and induced salt-sensitive hypertension. Mice overexpressing soluble VEGFR3 in epidermal keratinocytes exhibited hypoplastic cutaneous lymph capillaries and increased Na+, Cl-, and water retention in skin and salt-sensitive hypertension. Further, we found that HSD elevated skin osmolality above plasma levels. These results suggest that the skin contains a hypertonic interstitial fluid compartment in which MPS cells exert homeostatic and blood pressure-regulatory control by local organization of interstitial electrolyte clearance via TONEBP and VEGFC/VEGFR3-mediated modification of cutaneous lymphatic capillary function.

                Author and article information

                21 August 2019
                September 2019
                : 11
                : 9
                : 1970
                [1 ]IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Cardiology Unit, 20100 Milan, Italy
                [2 ]IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, 43121 Parma, Italy
                [4 ]Chair of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20100 Milan, Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: paolo.salvi@ 123456unimib.it ; Tel.: +39-026-191-122-06
                Author information
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 29 July 2019
                : 16 August 2019

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                arterial stiffness,endothelial function,hypertension,salt-sensitivity,salt intake,sodium intake,sympathetic activity


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