In this study, the early ecological succession patterns of Forni Glacier (Ortles-Cevedale group, Italian Alps) forefield along an 18-year long chronosequence (with a temporal resolution of 1 year) has been reported. Bacterial and fungal community structures were inferred by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and ITS, respectively. In addition, the occurrence of both herbaceous and arboreous plants was also recorded at each plot. A significant decrease of alpha-diversity in more recently deglaciated areas was observed for both bacteria and plants. Time since deglaciation and pH affected the structure of both fungal and bacterial communities. Pioneer plants could be a major source of colonization for both bacterial and fungal communities. Consistently, some of the most abundant bacterial taxa and some of those significantly varying with pH along the chronosequence (Polaromonas, Granulicella, Thiobacillus, Acidiferrobacter) are known to be actively involved in rock-weathering processes due to their chemolithotrophic metabolism, thus suggesting that the early phase of the chronosequence could be mainly shaped by the biologically controlled bioavailability of metals and inorganic compounds. Fungal communities were dominated by ascomycetous filamentous fungi and basidiomycetous yeasts. Their role as cold-adapted organic matter decomposers, due to their heterotrophic metabolism, was suggested.