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      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (submit here)

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      Treatment Outcomes of the Acute Coronary Syndrome Among Patients Attending St. Paul Hospital


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          Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients need intense therapy and diagnostic evaluation for improved treatment. In Ethiopia, where patient deaths and hospital stays are rising, the ACS treatment is thought to be not very effective.


          A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at St. Paul Hospital. The data were collected from patients medical records using a structured data abstraction checklist from 2018 to 2020. The data was entered, analyzed, and interpreted using SPSS version 24 software.


          Of 157 ACS patients, 69 (43.9%) had a STEMI diagnosis. Age was 63.69 years on average (SD: 8.23). The typical amount of time between the onsets of ACS symptoms to hospital presentation was 79.3 hours (3.3 days). For 104 (66.2%) patients, hypertension was the main risk factor for the development of ACS. Killip class III and IV patients made up about 3.8% of the ACS patients at St. Paul hospital. An EF of less than 40% was present in 36.3% of patients. Loading doses of aspirin (90.4%), anticoagulants (14%), beta-blockers (82.8%), statins (86%), clopidogrel (7.6%), and nitrates (2.5%) are among the medications taken inside hospitals. Of 157 ACS patients, 6 (3.8%) patients with medical records examined died while receiving treatment in the hospital, while 151 (96.2%) patients were discharged alive.


          STEMI was the most common diagnosis for ACS patients at St. Paul Hospital. The two main hospital events for these patients were CHF and cardiogenic shock.

          Most cited references23

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          Predictors of hospital mortality in the global registry of acute coronary events.

          Management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) should be guided by an estimate of patient risk. To develop a simple model to assess the risk for in-hospital mortality for the entire spectrum of ACS treated in general clinical practice. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed using 11 389 patients (including 509 in-hospital deaths) with ACS with and without ST-segment elevation enrolled in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) from April 1, 1999, through March 31, 2001. Validation data sets included a subsequent cohort of 3972 patients enrolled in GRACE and 12 142 in the Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries IIb (GUSTO-IIb) trial. The following 8 independent risk factors accounted for 89.9% of the prognostic information: age (odds ratio [OR], 1.7 per 10 years), Killip class (OR, 2.0 per class), systolic blood pressure (OR, 1.4 per 20-mm Hg decrease), ST-segment deviation (OR, 2.4), cardiac arrest during presentation (OR, 4.3), serum creatinine level (OR, 1.2 per 1-mg/dL [88.4- micro mol/L] increase), positive initial cardiac enzyme findings (OR, 1.6), and heart rate (OR, 1.3 per 30-beat/min increase). The discrimination ability of the simplified model was excellent with c statistics of 0.83 in the derived database, 0.84 in the confirmation GRACE data set, and 0.79 in the GUSTO-IIb database. Across the entire spectrum of ACS and in general clinical practice, this model provides excellent ability to assess the risk for death and can be used as a simple nomogram to estimate risk in individual patients.
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            Presentation, management, and outcomes of 25 748 acute coronary syndrome admissions in Kerala, India: results from the Kerala ACS Registry.

            There are limited contemporary data on the presentation, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) admissions in India. We aimed to develop a prospective registry to address treatment and health systems gaps in the management of ACSs in Kerala, India. We prospectively collected data on 25 748 consecutive ACS admissions from 2007 to 2009 in 125 hospitals in Kerala. We evaluated data on presentation, management, and in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). We created random-effects multivariate regression models to evaluate predictors of outcomes while accounting for confounders. Mean (SD) age at presentation was 60 (12) years and did not differ among ACS types [ST-segment myocardial infarction (STEMI) = 37%; non-STEMI = 31%; unstable angina = 32%]. In-hospital anti-platelet use was high (>90%). Thrombolytics were used in 41% of STEMI, 19% of non-STEMI, and 11% of unstable angina admissions. Percutaneous coronary intervention rates were marginally higher in STEMI admissions. Discharge medication rates were variable and generally suboptimal ( 6 h [OR = 2.29 (1.73, 3.02)], and inappropriate use of thrombolysis [OR = 1.33 (0.92, 1.91)] were associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality and door-to-needle time <30 min [OR = 0.44 (0.27, 0.72)] was associated with lower mortality. Similar trends were seen for risk of MACE. These data represent the largest ACS registry in India and demonstrate opportunities for improving ACS care.
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              Hospital outcomes in patients presenting with congestive heart failure complicating acute myocardial infarction: a report from the Second National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (NRMI-2).

              The purpose of this study was to examine treatment and outcomes in patients admitted to the hospital with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by congestive heart failure (CHF). Although cardiogenic shock complicating AMI has been studied extensively, the hospital course of patients presenting with CHF is less well established. The Second National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (NRMI-2) was analyzed to determine hospital outcomes for patients with ST-elevation AMI admitted with CHF (Killip classes II or III). Of 190,518 patients with AMI, 36,303 (19.1%) had CHF on admission. Patients presenting with CHF were older (72.6 +/- 12.5 vs. 63.2 +/- 13.5 years), more often female (46.8% vs. 32.1%), had longer time to hospital presentation (2.80 +/- 2.6 vs. 2.50 +/- 2.4 h), and had higher prevalence of anterior/septal AMI (38.8% vs. 33.3%), diabetes (33.1% vs. 19.5%), and hypertension (54.6% vs. 46.1%) (all p < 0.0005). Also, they had longer lengths of stay (8.1 +/- 7.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 5.3 days, p < 0.00005) and greater risk for in-hospital death (21.4% vs. 7.2%; p < 0.0005). Patients with CHF were less likely to receive aspirin (75.7% vs. 89.0%), heparin (74.6% vs. 91.1%), oral beta-blockers (27.0% vs. 41.7%), fibrinolytics (33.4% vs. 58.0%), or primary angioplasty (8.6% vs. 14.6%), and more likely to receive angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (25.4% vs. 13.0%). Congestive heart failure on admission was one of the strongest predictors of in-hospital death (adjusted odds ratio 1.68; 95% confidence interval 1.62, 1.75). Patients with AMI presenting with CHF are at higher risk for adverse in-hospital outcomes. Despite this, they are less likely to be treated with reperfusion therapy and medications with proven mortality benefit.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                27 January 2023
                : 19
                : 105-114
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar , Gondar, Ethiopia
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine St. Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [3 ]Department of Social & Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, University of Gondar , Gondar, Ethiopia
                [4 ]Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar , Gondar, Ethiopia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yeniewa Kerie Anagaw, Email yeniewa21@gmail.com
                Author information
                © 2023 Anagaw et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 18 July 2022
                : 24 January 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 6, References: 30, Pages: 10
                Funded by: funding;
                There is no funding to report.
                Original Research

                acute coronary syndrome,treatment outcome,killip class,ethiopia
                acute coronary syndrome, treatment outcome, killip class, ethiopia


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