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      In vitro evaluation of anti-herpes simplex-1 activity of three standardized medicinal plants from Lamiaceae

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          Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic acid with antioxidant and anti-viral effects. We have studied anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) effect of three medicinal plants from Lamiaceae family which have been standardized on the basis of RA content.

          Materials and Methods:

          Methanolic extract of Teucrium polium, Ziziphora clinopoides, and Salvia rhytidea was prepared by maceration method and RA content of the plants was determined using a spectrophotometric method. Maximum nontoxic concentration (MNTC) of the extracts was determined using neutral red method. Serial dilutions of extracts up to MNTC were examined on Vero cells for anti-HSV-1 effect by plaque assay in comparison to acyclovir as a positive control.


          Among the tested extracts, T. polium contained the highest percentage of RA (1.8%w/w) and exhibited the least toxicity (MNTC = 1000 μg/ml). The greatest anti-HSV-1 was shown by T. polium and Z. clinopoides extracts which exhibited both time and concentration-dependent plaque inhibition.


          Considering the low toxicity and significant anti-viral effect of T. polium extract, this plant would prove valuable as an active anti-viral drug.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Medicinal Plants

           A Zargari (1990)
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            Novel antiviral agents: a medicinal plant perspective.

             M Naji,  S. Jassim (2002)
            Several hundred plant and herb species that have potential as novel antiviral agents have been studied, with surprisingly little overlap. A wide variety of active phytochemicals, including the flavonoids, terpenoids, lignans, sulphides, polyphenolics, coumarins, saponins, furyl compounds, alkaloids, polyines, thiophenes, proteins and peptides have been identified. Some volatile essential oils of commonly used culinary herbs, spices and herbal teas have also exhibited a high level of antiviral activity. However, given the few classes of compounds investigated, most of the pharmacopoeia of compounds in medicinal plants with antiviral activity is still not known. Several of these phytochemicals have complementary and overlapping mechanisms of action, including antiviral effects by either inhibiting the formation of viral DNA or RNA or inhibiting the activity of viral reproduction. Assay methods to determine antiviral activity include multiple-arm trials, randomized crossover studies, and more compromised designs such as nonrandomized crossovers and pre- and post-treatment analyses. Methods are needed to link antiviral efficacy/potency- and laboratory-based research. Nevertheless, the relative success achieved recently using medicinal plant/herb extracts of various species that are capable of acting therapeutically in various viral infections has raised optimism about the future of phyto-antiviral agents. As this review illustrates, there are innumerable potentially useful medicinal plants and herbs waiting to be evaluated and exploited for therapeutic applications against genetically and functionally diverse viruses families such as Retroviridae, Hepadnaviridae and Herpesviridae
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              Rosmarinic acid inhibits epidermal inflammatory responses: anticarcinogenic effect of Perilla frutescens extract in the murine two-stage skin model.

              Perilla frutescens extract showed marked reduction on tumorigenesis in a murine, two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. In this model, cancer is initiated by application of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by application of 12-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Following tumor initiation with DMBA, topical application of a perilla-derived fraction (PF) at doses of 2 mg/mouse/application resulted in significant inhibition of tumorigenesis. The efficacy of each fraction was correlated with rosmarinic acid (RA) and luteolin concentration. Topical application of perilla extract (PE) that contained 68% RA or an equivalent amount of commercially available RA showed nearly identical antiinflammatory activity 5 h after TPA treatment. Application of luteolin had less anti-inflammatory activity. Marked neutrophil infiltration was observed in TPA-challenged skin by histological examination using hematoxylin-eosin. This change was greatly reduced by pre-treatment with PE or RA. Myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil recruitment, was also increased in TPA-challenged skin and was significantly decreased in the PE and RA treated groups. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mRNA expression levels were reduced by pre-treatment with PE or RA. TPA-induced increases in synthesis of the chemokines KC and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 were significantly decreased by pre-treatment with PE or RA. Prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 levels were slightly increased 5 h after TPA treatment. These levels were only numerically decreased in the PE and RA treated groups. However, induction of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression was obviously reduced by pre-treatment with PE or RA. Reactive oxygen radical production, detected as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and lipid peroxide, by double treatment of TPA was reduced by pre-treatment with PE or RA. Production of 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine, which was detected immunohistochemically, was also induced by double treatment with TPA. This adduct was barely visible in PE or RA treated mice. Thus, we conclude that part of the anticarcinogenic effects of P.frutescens extract is due to RA via two independent mechanisms: inhibition of the inflammatory response and scavenging of reactive oxygen radicals.

                Author and article information

                Anc Sci Life
                Anc Sci Life
                Ancient Science of Life
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Jul-Sep 2014
                : 34
                : 1
                : 33-38
                Pharmaceutics Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [1 ]Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [2 ]Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [3 ]International Centers for Science and Technology and Environmental Sciences (HITEC), Kerman, Iran
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Fariba Sharififar Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. E-mail: fsharififar@
                Copyright: © Ancient Science of Life

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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