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Overexpression of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase contributes to tumour metastasis and correlates with poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma

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      This study aimed to evaluate the biological role of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase ( GGPPS) in the progression of lung adenocarcinoma. GGPPS expression was detected in lung adenocarcinoma tissues by qRTPCR, tissue microarray ( TMA) and western blotting. The relationships between GGPPS expression and the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients were assessed. GGPPS was down‐regulated in SPCA‐1, PC9 and A549 cells using si RNA and up‐regulated in A549 cells using an adenoviral vector. The biological roles of GGPPS in cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion were determined by MTT and colony formation assays, flow cytometry, and transwell and wound‐healing assays, respectively. In addition, the regulatory roles of GGPPS on the expression of several epithelial‐mesenchymal transition ( EMT) markers were determined. Furthermore, the Rac1/Cdc42 prenylation was detected after knockdown of GGPPS in SPCA‐1 and PC9 cells. GGPPS expression was significantly increased in lung adenocarcinoma tissues compared to that in adjacent normal tissues. Overexpression of GGPPS was correlated with large tumours, high TNM stage, lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients. Knockdown of GGPPS inhibited the migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells, but did not affect cell proliferation and apoptosis. Meanwhile, GGPPS inhibition significantly increased the expression of E‐cadherin and reduced the expression of N‐cadherin and vimentin in lung adenocarcinoma cells. In addition, the Rac1/Cdc42 geranylgeranylation was reduced by GGPPS knockdown. Overexpression of GGPPS correlates with poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma and contributes to metastasis through regulating EMT.

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            Author and article information

            [ 1 ] Department of Respiratory Medicine Jinling Hospital Southern Medical University Nanjing China
            [ 2 ] Intensive Care Unit Inner Mongolia People's Hospital Hohhot China
            [ 3 ] Center of Tumor Inner Mongolia People's Hospital Hohhot China
            Author notes
            [* ] Correspondence to: Tangfeng LV, M.D., Ph.D.

            E‐mail: bairoushui@

            Yong SONG, M.D., Ph.D.



            These authors contributed equally to this work.

            J Cell Mol Med
            J. Cell. Mol. Med
            Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
            John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
            29 January 2018
            April 2018
            : 22
            : 4 ( doiID: 10.1111/jcmm.2018.22.issue-4 )
            : 2177-2189
            © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

            This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Figures: 7, Tables: 2, Pages: 13, Words: 6521
            Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
            Award ID: 81302032
            Award ID: 81401903
            Award ID: 81572937
            Award ID: 81572273
            Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu province
            Award ID: BK2011658
            Award ID: BK20140736
            Funded by: Program of Nanjing Science and Technology of Nanjing Science and Technology Committee
            Award ID: 201605059
            Funded by: Jiangsu Provincial Medical Youth Talent
            Award ID: QNRC2016125
            Funded by: Inner Mongolia People's Hospital research fund
            Award ID: 2016082
            Original Article
            Original Articles
            Custom metadata
            April 2018
            Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:version=5.3.3 mode:remove_FC converted:25.03.2018


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