Achievements obtained by the onchocerciasis control programmes should not lead to
a relaxation in the biological research on Onchocerco volvulus. Issues such as the
Loa loa-related post-ivermectin serious adverse events, the uncertainties as to whether
onchocerciasis can be eliminated by ivermectin treatments, and the possible emergence
of ivermectin-resistant O. volvulus populations should be addressed proactively. Doxycycline,
moxidectin and emodepside appear to be promising as alternative drugs against onchocerciasis
but support to researches in immunology and genomics should also be increased to develop
new control tools, including both vaccines and macrofilaricidal drugs.