Hyperhomocysteinemia (HH), a known risk factor for vascular diseases, is a frequent condition in hemodialysis (HD) patients. HH induces an oxidant stress to the vascular endothelium, causing a failure of vasodilation and an impairment of the antithrombotic properties. Vitamins B<sub>6</sub>, B<sub>12</sub> and folic acid are important cofactors for the enzymes in the catabolism of homocysteine (Hcy). Failure of Hcy catabolism forces the cell to export Hcy into the plasma. The kidney is an important metabolic site for removal (up to 70%) of plasma Hcy (P-Hcy). HD lowers the P-Hcy concentration by 29 and 41% with cellulosic and noncellulosic membranes, respectively, yet values return to normal in only a few patients. Clearly, we must decrease the dangerous high levels of Hcy in different ways. Vitamin Supplementation: Vitamins B<sub>6</sub>, B<sub>12</sub> and folic acid decreased the basal level of Hcy by about 40%, starting from the sixth month. Membranes: Some membranes performed better than the others. Techniques: On the chronic basis, in our 1-year experience, paired filtration dialyis led to the best results, when compared to bicarbonate dialysis and acetate-free biofiltration. Finally, as in HD patients no one type of treatment can normalize the P-Hcy concentration, we should try other, different strategies such as absorption, the use of liposomes and new types of supplementation.