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      From cradle to grave: neurogenesis, neuroregeneration and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases


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          Two of the most common neurodegenerative disorders – Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases – are characterized by synaptic dysfunction and degeneration that culminate in neuronal loss due to abnormal protein accumulation. The intracellular aggregation of hyper-phosphorylated tau and the extracellular aggregation of amyloid beta plaques form the basis of Alzheimer’s disease pathology. The major hallmark of Parkinson’s disease is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, following the formation of Lewy bodies, which consists primarily of alpha-synuclein aggregates. However, the discrete mechanisms that contribute to neurodegeneration in these disorders are still poorly understood. Both neuronal loss and impaired adult neurogenesis have been reported in animal models of these disorders. Yet these findings remain subject to frequent debate due to a lack of conclusive evidence in post mortem brain tissue from human patients. While some publications provide significant findings related to axonal regeneration in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, they also highlight the limitations and obstacles to the development of neuroregenerative therapies. In this review, we summarize in vitro and in vivo findings related to neurogenesis, neuroregeneration and neurodegeneration in the context of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

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          Alzheimer's disease.

          Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Research advances have enabled detailed understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the hallmarks of the disease--ie, plaques, composed of amyloid beta (Abeta), and tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. However, as our knowledge increases so does our appreciation for the pathogenic complexity of the disorder. Familial Alzheimer's disease is a very rare autosomal dominant disease with early onset, caused by mutations in the amyloid precursor protein and presenilin genes, both linked to Abeta metabolism. By contrast with familial disease, sporadic Alzheimer's disease is very common with more than 15 million people affected worldwide. The cause of the sporadic form of the disease is unknown, probably because the disease is heterogeneous, caused by ageing in concert with a complex interaction of both genetic and environmental risk factors. This seminar reviews the key aspects of the disease, including epidemiology, genetics, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment, as well as recent developments and controversies.
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            Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of Alzheimer’s disease

            Alzheimer's disease is a pervasive neurodegenerative disorder, the molecular complexity of which remains poorly understood. Here, we analysed 80,660 single-nucleus transcriptomes from the prefrontal cortex of 48 individuals with varying degrees of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Across six major brain cell types, we identified transcriptionally distinct subpopulations, including those associated with pathology and characterized by regulators of myelination, inflammation, and neuron survival. The strongest disease-associated changes appeared early in pathological progression and were highly cell-type specific, whereas genes upregulated at late stages were common across cell types and primarily involved in the global stress response. Notably, we found that female cells were overrepresented in disease-associated subpopulations, and that transcriptional responses were substantially different between sexes in several cell types, including oligodendrocytes. Overall, myelination-related processes were recurrently perturbed in multiple cell types, suggesting that myelination has a key role in Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. Our single-cell transcriptomic resource provides a blueprint for interrogating the molecular and cellular basis of Alzheimer's disease.
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              The neuropathological diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease

              Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease most often associated with memory deficits and cognitive decline, although less common clinical presentations are increasingly recognized. The cardinal pathological features of the disease have been known for more than one hundred years, and today the presence of these amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are still required for a pathological diagnosis. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia globally. There remain no effective treatment options for the great majority of patients, and the primary causes of the disease are unknown except in a small number of familial cases driven by genetic mutations. Confounding efforts to develop effective diagnostic tools and disease-modifying therapies is the realization that Alzheimer’s disease is a mixed proteinopathy (amyloid and tau) frequently associated with other age-related processes such as cerebrovascular disease and Lewy body disease. Defining the relationships between and interdependence of various co-pathologies remains an active area of investigation. This review outlines etiologically-linked pathologic features of Alzheimer’s disease, as well as those that are inevitable findings of uncertain significance, such as granulovacuolar degeneration and Hirano bodies. Other disease processes that are frequent, but not inevitable, are also discussed, including pathologic processes that can clinically mimic Alzheimer’s disease. These include cerebrovascular disease, Lewy body disease, TDP-43 proteinopathies and argyrophilic grain disease. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of Alzheimer’s disease pathology, its defining pathologic substrates and the related pathologies that can affect diagnosis and treatment. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13024-019-0333-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

                Author and article information

                Neural Regen Res
                Neural Regen Res
                Neural Regen Res
                Neural Regeneration Research
                Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (India )
                December 2022
                29 April 2022
                : 17
                : 12
                : 2606-2614
                [1]Deparment of Neuropathology, Stanford University, School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence to: Debia Wakhloo, wakhloo@ 123456stanford.edu ; Sameehan Mahajani, mahajani@ 123456stanford.edu .

                Author contributions: Conceptualization, investigation, writing - original draft, writing - reviewing and editing, supervision: DW; investigation, visualization, writing - original draft, writing - reviewing and editing: JO; visualization, writing - reviewing and editing: AM; conceptualization, investigation, writing - original draft, writing - reviewing and editing, supervision: SM. All authors approved the final version of this manuscript .

                Author information
                Copyright: © Neural Regeneration Research

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                : 29 September 2021
                : 16 November 2021
                : 02 December 2021

                alpha-synuclein,amyloid beta plaques,autophagy,dopaminergic neurons,human ipscs,mitochondrial dysfunction,scrna sequencing,synaptic dysfunction,tau,wallerian degeneration


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