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      Prevalence of risk factors for chronic kidney disease among adults in a university community in southern Nigeria

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          The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a global public health challenge particularly in developing countries, including our local environment, where subjects with the disease present late and may already be in need of renal replacement therapy. Early detection of modifiable risk factors of CKD is a plausible strategy to reduce its prevalence and burden. The 2014 World Kidney Day (WKD) exercise provided a veritable opportunity to identify CKD risk factors among adult Nigerians for early intervention.


          Subjects were mobilized from the University community for the 2014 WKD exercise. The parameters assessed were demographics, Body mass index (BMI), blood pressures, proteinuria, glycosuria, serum creatinine and fasting plasma glucose. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) was estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0.


          A total of 259 volunteers were studied, mean age of 28.3±9.7years (16-66years). Males comprised 135(52.1%) while 124(47.9%) were females. The frequency of risk factors of CKD observed were obesity in 31(12.2%) subjects, proteinuria and glycosuria in 32(12.4%) and 7(2.7%) subjects respectively. Hypertension and hyperglycaemia were seen in 54(20.8%) and 11(4.3%) of subjects respectively. Five subjects (1.9%) had e-GFR < 60mls/min/1.73m 2.


          Prevalence of CKD risk factors in this study population was high. There is need for continuous education, regular screening for early detection and early intervention by risk factor modification to prevent and/or reduce the growing burden of CKD and its sequelae in Nigeria.

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          Most cited references 26

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          World Health Organization.

           Ala Alwan (2007)
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            Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine.

            A formula has been developed to predict creatinine clearance (Ccr) from serum creatinine (Scr) in adult males: (see article)(15% less in females). Derivation included the relationship found between age and 24-hour creatinine excretion/kg in 249 patients aged 18-92. Values for Ccr were predicted by this formula and four other methods and the results compared with the means of two 24-hour Ccr's measured in 236 patients. The above formula gave a correlation coefficient between predicted and mean measured Ccr's of 0.83; on average, the difference predicted and mean measured values was no greater than that between paired clearances. Factors for age and body weight must be included for reasonable prediction.
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              Chronic kidney disease in the developing world.


                Author and article information

                Pan Afr Med J
                Pan Afr Med J
                The Pan African Medical Journal
                The African Field Epidemiology Network
                13 June 2015
                : 21
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
                Author notes
                [& ]Corresponding author: Chinyere Mmanwanyi Wachukwu, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
                © Chinyere Mmanwanyi Wachukwu et al.

                The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



                chronic kidney disease (ckd), risk factors, prevention


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