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      Aspectos produtivos da raça Pardo-Suíça no Brasil: Fatores de ajustamento, produção de leite e de gordura, e parâmetros genéticos Translated title: Productive aspects of the brown Swiss Breed in Brazil: Adjustment factors, milk and fat yields, and genetic parameters

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          Abstract

          Foi realizado um estudo sobre o desempenho produtivo da raça Pardo-Suíça com o objetivo de estimar fatores de ajustamento, avaliar fatores de ambiente e genéticos que influenciam a produção de leite, de gordura e a porcentagem de gordura, e estimar parâmetros genéticos para estas características produtivas. Foram avaliadas 11189 lactações de 5382 vacas Pardo-Suíças, de 1980 a 1999, oriundas de 201 rebanhos, sendo os registros de produção do serviço de controle leiteiro realizado pela Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Gado Pardo-Suíço. As lactações foram ajustadas por meio de fatores multiplicativos de ajustamento para duas ordenhas, períodos de lactação de 305 dias e produção a idade adulta. As médias estimadas, os respectivos desvios-padrão e os coeficientes de variação da produção de leite, produção de gordura e percentagem de gordura foram 5791,50 ± 1211,58 kg e 20,92%; 217,25 ± 47,36 kg e 21,80% e 3,78 ± 0,34 e 9,16%, respectivamente. Os efeitos de ano e época de partos, interação ano-época de partos, rebanho e grupo genético influenciaram as características estudadas, com exceção da época de partos sobre a percentagem de gordura. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade e repetibilidade estimados para a produção de leite e gordura foram 0,37e 0,40, e 0,36 e 0,37, respectivamente. A correlação genética entre a produção de leite e de gordura encontrada neste estudo foi de 0,96. Os resultados obtidos revelam a necessidade do ajustamento das produções de leite e gordura para os efeitos avaliados. As médias de produção de leite, de gordura e à percentagem de gordura apresentada demonstram o elevado desempenho produtivo da raça Pardo-Suíça nos rebanhos brasileiros.

          Translated abstract

          A study was carried on performance of the Brown Swiss cattle with the objective of estimating adjustment factors, evaluate some environment and genetics factors that affect milk and fat yields and fat percentage, and estimate genetic parameters for this productive traits. It was appraised 11,189 lactations out of 5,382 Brown Swiss cows, from 1980 to 1999, originated from 201 herds, provided by milking record service accomplished by the Brown Swiss Cattle Breeder`s Association of Brazil. Productions were adjusted by a multiplicative factors for two milkings, 305-day and production at the mature age. The estimated averages and its standard deviation and the coefficient of variation for milk and fat yield and fat percentage were, respectively, 5,791.50 ± 1,211.58 kg and 20.92%; 217.25 ± 47.36 kg and 21.80% and 3.78 ± 0.34 and 9.16%, respectively. The effects of year and season of calving, year x season of calving interaction, herd and genetic group were significant, except for season of calving on fat percentage.Heritability estimates and repeatability for milk and fat yields were 0.37 and 0.40, and 0.36 and 0.37 respectively. Genetic correlation between milk and fat yield was 0.96. The obtained results showed the need to adjustment milk and fat yields for two milkings, 305-day and production at the mature age. It was concluded that the Brown Swiss breed has a great potential for production in Brazilian dairy herds.

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          Season and lactation number effects on milk production and reproduction of dairy cattle in Arizona.

          Records representing 19,266 Holstein cows from Arizona DHIA data over a 5-yr period were analyzed to determine the effects of season and lactation number on milk production and reproduction. Seasons were winter (December, January, and February), spring (March, April, and May), summer (June, July, and August), and fall (September, October, and November). Traits analyzed by least squares ANOVA were 305-d FCM, complete lactation milk, calving interval, and services per conception. All sources of variation were significant except the interaction between lactation number and season of calving for complete lactation milk. Milk production was depressed for cows calving in summer and fall. First lactation cows had lowest milk production, and highest production occurred in either lactation 4 or 5. Cows calving in spring and summer had reduced reproductive performance, as measured by calving interval and services per conception. First lactation cows had lowest values for both reproductive traits. Previous days dry was negatively related to milk production for spring calvings but was positively related for all other seasons. Cows with higher milk production had reduced reproductive performance. Partial regression coefficients for calving interval and services per conception were 12 d and .25 services per conception per 1000 kg of 305-d FCM, respectively. Despite the negative effects of thermal stress, milk production and fertility in this study were not depressed as severely as in previous research reported from Arizona. Calving schedules may be adjusted to minimize the adverse effect of heat stress.
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            Three or two times daily milking of older cows and first lactation cows for entire lactations.

            Thirty-eight older (second and greater lactation) and 15 Holstein cows in first lactation were in a full lactation (44 wk) study to evaluate the effect of either twice or three times daily milking on yield of milk and milk components, milk composition, feed intake, and body weight change. All cows were managed alike and were fed diets of high, medium, and low energy concentration as lactation progressed from calving to 44 wk. First lactation cows were switched from diets of high energy to lower energy at the same milk production as lactation advanced. Dietary changes for older cows milked twice and three times (A) were at similar production, whereas three times (B) cows were switched to lower energy at higher milk production. Older cows milked three times daily (A and B) produced 17 and 13% more milk over the entire lactation than cows milked twice daily. Dry matter and energy intakes were not affected by three times milking, but gain of body weight was reduced. Cows milked three times daily during their first lactation produced 6% more milk than their twice counterparts, although this increase was not significant. Dry matter and energy intakes were not affected by three times daily milking, but three times milking of first lactation cows reduced weight gain over the lactation. Reproductive performance of cows milked three times daily was not significantly different from cows milked twice daily. Herds milking three times will require high management of nutrition and reproduction.
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              Influence of milking frequency on productive and reproductive efficiencies of dairy cows.

              Thirty-four mature Holstein cows were blocked into two groups on their 305-day, twice daily milked, mature equivalent milk production of the previous lactation; groups were assigned at random to a twice or thrice daily milking frequency. In addition, six pairs of paternal half-sisters and one pair of nonsibling heifers also were assigned to twice daily or thrice daily milking frequency. Half-sisters were assigned to milking frequency on alternate calvings, and the nonsibling pair was assigned at random. Milk production peaked at 6 wk lactation in mature cows in both treatments, at 7 wk for cows in first lactation milked twice daily, and at 9 wk for cows in first lactation milked thrice daily. Cows milked thrice daily reached higher peak milk production and were more persistent in milk production. Multiparous and first-lactation cows milked thrice daily produced 18.5 and 25.2% more milk than their counterparts milked twice daily, and after 15 wk heifers milked thrice daily were producing more milk per day than mature cows milked twice daily. The combined increased average production for cows and heifers milked thrice daily, 1299 kg, required only 92 kg more dry matter intake and resulted in an apparent preferential utilization of feed nutrients for milk production or higher rate of tissue catabolism in cows milked thrice daily. Milk composition was not influenced by milking frequency; total milk fat was 36 kg more for cows milked thrice daily. Reproductive performance measured as days to first estrus, days open, or services per conception also was not influenced by milking frequency.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rbz
                Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia
                R. Bras. Zootec.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia (Viçosa, MG, Brazil )
                1516-3598
                1806-9290
                September 2002
                : 31
                : 5
                : 2043-2054
                Affiliations
                [04] orgnameUniversidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná
                [02] orgnameUFV orgdiv1Departamento de Zootecnia
                [05] orgnameAssociação Brasileira dos Criadores de Gado Pardo-Suíço
                [01] orgnameUFV orgdiv1Departamento de Zootecnia
                [03] orgnameFaculdade de Ciências Agrárias do Pará
                Article
                S1516-35982002000800020 S1516-3598(02)03100520
                a58d74b9-6185-44a0-9762-435f8ce2afb3

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 12
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                Categories
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                características produtivas,fatores de ajustamento,Pardo-Suíço,parâmetros genéticos,adjustment factors,Brown Swiss,genetic parameters,productive characteristics

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