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      First report on the sero-epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in German roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus) Translated title: Premier rapport sur la séroépidémiologie de l’infection par Toxoplasma gondii chez le chevreuil ( Capreolus capreolus) en Allemagne

      1 , * , 2 , 3 , 1 , *

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Toxoplasma gondii, Seroprevalence, Roe deer, Wildlife, MAT, Thuringia

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          Abstract

          While the roe deer ( Capreolus capeolus) is the most important game species in Germany and its venison is popular, there is limited knowledge about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in this animal population in the country, and in wild ungulates in Germany generally. Between 2013 and 2015, we collected 295 blood samples from roe deer belonging to a central German population. Sera were analysed using a modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:20), and antibodies were detected in 86 of the 295 samples (29%). Seroprevalence values differed significantly between the different age classes, with antibodies more frequently observed in adults. In contrast, seroprevalence did not differ significantly between the sexes or collection years. Venison is frequently consumed raw or undercooked and may be a potential source of human infection with T. gondii.

          Translated abstract

          Bien que le chevreuil ( Capreolus capreolus) soit l’espèce de gibier la plus importante en Allemagne et que sa viande soit populaire, la prévalence de Toxoplasma gondii dans les populations allemandes ainsi que chez les ongulés sauvages allemands en général est peu connue. Entre 2013 et 2015, nous avons prélevé 295 échantillons de sang de chevreuils de l’Allemagne centrale. Les sérums ont été analysés à l’aide d’un test d’agglutination modifié (MAT, cut-off 1:20) et des anticorps ont été détectés dans 86 des 295 échantillons (29 %). Les valeurs de séroprévalence différaient de manière significative entre les différentes classes d’âge, les anticorps étant plus fréquemment observés chez les adultes. En revanche, la séroprévalence ne différait pas de manière significative entre les sexes ou les années de collecte. Le gibier est fréquemment consommé cru ou insuffisamment cuit et peut être une source potentielle d’infection humaine par T. gondii.

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          Most cited references 31

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          History of the discovery of the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii.

           Vinod Dubey (2009)
          It has been 100 years since the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii in 1908. Its full life cycle was not discovered until 1970 when it was found that it is a coccidian parasite of cats with all non-feline warm blooded animals (including humans) as intermediate hosts. The discovery of the environmentally resistant stage of the parasite, the oocyst, made it possible to explain its worldwide prevalence. In the present paper, events associated with the discovery of its life cycle are recalled.
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            Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Toxoplasmosis

            Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings.
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              Comparison of a commercial ELISA with the modified agglutination test for detection of Toxoplasma infection in the domestic pig.

              The modified agglutination test (MAT) and a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were compared for detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in naturally-infected market-aged pigs. Infected pigs were obtained from commercial slaughter facilities and from farms where infection had previously been detected. Infection was confirmed by bioassay in cats. For 70 bioassay positive pigs, 60 were positive by MAT (85.7% sensitivity) and 62 were positive by ELISA (88.6% sensitivity). Of 204 bioassay negative samples 193 were negative by MAT (94.6% specificity) and 200 were negative by ELISA (98.0% specificity). Good correlation was seen between MAT and ELISA results. The results suggest that the ELISA may be a good tool for epidemiological studies of Toxoplasma infection on pig farms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2018
                25 September 2018
                : 25
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2018/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle 2160 Luxembourg Luxembourg
                [2 ] University of Göttingen, Faculty of Chemistry 37077 Göttingen Germany
                [3 ] University of Würzburg, Department of Mathematics 97074 Würzburg Germany
                Author notes
                Article
                parasite180105 10.1051/parasite/2018052
                10.1051/parasite/2018052
                6154261
                30251952
                © M. Heddergott et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 35, Pages: 5
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