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      An Overview of Bimekizumab for the Treatment of Psoriatic Arthritis: The Evidence so Far

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          Abstract

          Psoriatic arthritis is a complex and heterogeneous disease with potential significant disability and impaired quality of life. Although in the last decades new treatment options have led to a better management of this disease, there are still significant unmet therapeutic needs. Dual inhibitor antibodies target two different cytokines simultaneously, potentially offering a better disease control. In psoriatic arthritis, there is evidence for a pathogenic role not only of IL-17A but also the structurally homologous IL-17F. It is postulated that differential expression of both in several targets of PsA could account for disparities in clinical response to IL-17A inhibition alone (such as with secukinumab or ixekizumab). Here we review the evidence so far for the use in psoriatic arthritis of bimekizumab, the first humanized monoclonal IgG1 antibody that selectively neutralizes both IL-17A and IL-17F. A Phase 2b trial reports better outcomes over both placebo and IL-17A inhibition alone. Very recently encouraging results from open-label extensions with regards to both safety and maintenance of response were presented. Phase III trials are ongoing with the first results awaited in 2021.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Effective treatment of psoriasis with etanercept is linked to suppression of IL-17 signaling, not immediate response TNF genes.

          TNF inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris as well as psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn disease. Despite our understanding that these agents block TNF, their complex mechanism of action in disease resolution is still unclear. To analyze globally the genomic effects of TNF inhibition in patients with psoriasis, and to compare genomic profiles of patients who responded or did not respond to treatment. In a clinical trial using etanercept TNF inhibitor to treat psoriasis vulgaris (n = 15), Affymetrix gene arrays were used to analyze gene profiles in lesional skin at multiple time points during drug treatment (baseline and weeks 1, 2, 4, and 12) compared with nonlesional skin. Patients were stratified as responders (n = 11) or nonresponders (n = 4) on the basis of histologic disease resolution. Cluster analysis was used to define gene sets that were modulated with similar magnitude and velocity over time. In responders, 4 clusters of downregulated genes and 3 clusters of upregulated genes were identified. Genes downmodulated most rapidly reflected direct inhibition of myeloid lineage immune genes. Upregulated genes included the stable dendritic cell population genes CD1c and CD207 (langerin). Comparison of responders and nonresponders revealed rapid downmodulation of innate IL-1beta and IL-8 sepsis cascade cytokines in both groups, but only responders downregulated IL-17 pathway genes to baseline levels. Although both responders and nonresponders to etanercept inactivated sepsis cascade cytokines, response to etanercept is dependent on inactivation of myeloid dendritic cell genes and inactivation of the T(H)17 immune response.
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            Psoriatic Arthritis

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              The Immunologic Role of IL-17 in Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Pathogenesis

              Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease that is pathogenically driven by proinflammatory cytokines. This article reviews the immunologic role of interleukin (IL)-17, the major effector cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriatic disease, along with the rationale for targeting the IL-17 cytokine family (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17 receptor A) in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Emerging evidence indicates that major sources of IL-17A in patients with psoriatic disease are mast cells, γδ T cells, αβ T cells, and innate lymphoid cells in lesional skin and synovial fluid. Within the skin and joints, IL-17A acts on cellular targets, including keratinocytes, neutrophils, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts, to stimulate production of various antimicrobial peptides, chemokines, and proinflammatory and proliferative cytokines, which, in turn, promote tissue inflammation and bone remodeling. The critical importance of the IL-23/IL-17A axis to the pathogenesis of psoriatic disease has resulted in many new biologic treatments targeting these cytokines. These biologics dramatically improve skin and joint symptoms in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                09 March 2021
                2021
                : 15
                : 1045-1053
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário do Porto , Porto, Portugal
                [2 ]Clinical Immunology Unit (UIC), Centro Hospitalar e Universitário do Porto , Porto, Portugal
                [3 ]Unit for Multidisciplinary Research in Biomedicine, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar – University of Porto , Porto, Portugal
                [4 ]Department of Dermatology, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário do Porto , Porto, Portugal
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Tiago Torres Department of Dermatology, Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto , Rua D. Manuel II, s/n, ex-CICAP, Porto, 4099-001, Portugal Email torres.tiago@outlook.com
                Article
                267405
                10.2147/DDDT.S267405
                7955739
                © 2021 Oliveira et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 38, Pages: 9
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