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Multiple-scale neuroendocrine signals connect brain and pituitary hormone rhythms

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      Neuronal spike trains and stochastic point processes. II. Simultaneous spike trains.

      The statistical analysis of two simultaneously observed trains of neuronal spikes is described, using as a conceptual framework the theory of stochastic point processes.The first statistical question that arises is whether the observed trains are independent; statistical techniques for testing independence are developed around the notion that, under the null hypothesis, the times of spike occurrence in one train represent random instants in time with respect to the other. If the null hypothesis is rejected-if dependence is attributed to the trains-the problem then becomes that of characterizing the nature and source of the observed dependencies. Statistical signs of various classes of dependencies, including direct interaction and shared input, are discussed and illustrated through computer simulations of interacting neurons. The effects of nonstationarities on the statistical measures for simultaneous spike trains are also discussed. For two-train comparisons of irregularly discharging nerve cells, moderate nonstationarities are shown to have little effect on the detection of interactions.Combining repetitive stimulation and simultaneous recording of spike trains from two (or more) neurons yields additional clues as to possible modes of interaction among the monitored neurons; the theory presented is illustrated by an application to experimentally obtained data from auditory neurons.A companion paper covers the analysis of single spike trains.
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        Scaling brain size, keeping timing: evolutionary preservation of brain rhythms.

        Despite the several-thousand-fold increase of brain volume during the course of mammalian evolution, the hierarchy of brain oscillations remains remarkably preserved, allowing for multiple-time-scale communication within and across neuronal networks at approximately the same speed, irrespective of brain size. Deployment of large-diameter axons of long-range neurons could be a key factor in the preserved time management in growing brains. We discuss the consequences of such preserved network constellation in mental disease, drug discovery, and interventional therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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          Characterizing a mammalian circannual pacemaker.

          Many species express endogenous cycles in physiology and behavior that allow anticipation of the seasons. The anatomical and cellular bases of these circannual rhythms have not been defined. Here, we provide strong evidence using an in vivo Soay sheep model that the circannual regulation of prolactin secretion, and its associated biology, derive from a pituitary-based timing mechanism. Circannual rhythm generation is seen as the product of the interaction between melatonin-regulated timer cells and adjacent prolactin-secreting cells, which together function as an intrapituitary "pacemaker-slave" timer system. These new insights open the way for a molecular analysis of long-term timing mechanisms.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
            Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
            Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
            0027-8424
            1091-6490
            February 28 2017
            February 28 2017
            : 114
            : 9
            : 2379-2382
            10.1073/pnas.1616864114
            © 2017

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