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      Metabolic constituents of grapevine and grape-derived products

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          Abstract

          The numerous uses of the grapevine fruit, especially for wine and beverages, have made it one of the most important plants worldwide. The phytochemistry of grapevine is rich in a wide range of compounds. Many of them are renowned for their numerous medicinal uses. The production of grapevine metabolites is highly conditioned by many factors like environment or pathogen attack. Some grapevine phytoalexins have gained a great deal of attention due to their antimicrobial activities, being also involved in the induction of resistance in grapevine against those pathogens. Meanwhile grapevine biotechnology is still evolving, thanks to the technological advance of modern science, and biotechnologists are making huge efforts to produce grapevine cultivars of desired characteristics. In this paper, important metabolites from grapevine and grape derived products like wine will be reviewed with their health promoting effects and their role against certain stress factors in grapevine physiology.

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          Most cited references86

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          Natural products and plant disease resistance.

          R Dixon (2001)
          Plants elaborate a vast array of natural products, many of which have evolved to confer selective advantage against microbial attack. Recent advances in molecular technology, aided by the enormous power of large-scale genomics initiatives, are leading to a more complete understanding of the enzymatic machinery that underlies the often complex pathways of plant natural product biosynthesis. Meanwhile, genetic and reverse genetic approaches are providing evidence for the importance of natural products in host defence. Metabolic engineering of natural product pathways is now a feasible strategy for enhancement of plant disease resistance.
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            Tailoring wine yeast for the new millennium: novel approaches to the ancient art of winemaking.

            Yeasts are predominant in the ancient and complex process of winemaking. In spontaneous fermentations, there is a progressive growth pattern of indigenous yeasts, with the final stages invariably being dominated by the alcohol-tolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This species is universally known as the 'wine yeast' and is widely preferred for initiating wine fermentations. The primary role of wine yeast is to catalyze the rapid, complete and efficient conversion of grape sugars to ethanol, carbon dioxide and other minor, but important, metabolites without the development of off-flavours. However, due to the demanding nature of modern winemaking practices and sophisticated wine markets, there is an ever-growing quest for specialized wine yeast strains possessing a wide range of optimized, improved or novel oenological properties. This review highlights the wealth of untapped indigenous yeasts with oenological potential, the complexity of wine yeasts' genetic features and the genetic techniques often used in strain development. The current status of genetically improved wine yeasts and potential targets for further strain development are outlined. In light of the limited knowledge of industrial wine yeasts' complex genomes and the daunting challenges to comply with strict statutory regulations and consumer demands regarding the future use of genetically modified strains, this review cautions against unrealistic expectations over the short term. However, the staggering potential advantages of improved wine yeasts to both the winemaker and consumer in the third millennium are pointed out. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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              Metabolite profiling of grape: Flavonols and anthocyanins.

              Flavonols are products of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, which also give rise to anthocyanins and condensed tannins in grapes. We investigated their presence in the berry skins of 91 grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), in order to produce a classification based on the flavonol profile. The presence of laricitrin 3-O-galactoside and syringetin 3-O-galactoside in red grapes is reported here for the first time. In red grapes, the main flavonol was quercetin (mean = 43.99%), followed by myricetin (36.81%), kaempferol (6.43%), laricitrin (5.65%), isorhamnetin (3.89%), and syringetin (3.22%). In white grapes, the main flavonol was quercetin (mean = 81.35%), followed by kaempferol (16.91%) and isorhamnetin (1.74%). The delphinidin-like flavonols myricetin, laricitrin, and syringetin were missing in all white varieties, indicating that the enzyme flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase is not expressed in white grape varieties. The pattern of expression of flavonols and anthocyanins in red grapes was compared, in order to gain information on the substrate specificity of enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +31-71-5274471 , +31-715274511 , y.choi@chem.leidenuniv.nl
                Journal
                Phytochem Rev
                Phytochemistry Reviews
                Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
                1568-7767
                1572-980X
                8 November 2009
                8 November 2009
                September 2010
                : 9
                : 3
                : 357-378
                Affiliations
                Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, P.O. Box 9502, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands
                Article
                9158
                10.1007/s11101-009-9158-0
                2928446
                20835385
                a5c5f5da-cd28-47f2-8ca4-bbb3d0db6f7e
                © The Author(s) 2009
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

                Biochemistry
                resistance,grapevine,medicinal importance,phytochemistry
                Biochemistry
                resistance, grapevine, medicinal importance, phytochemistry

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