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      Preparation of Medicinal Plants: Basic Extraction and Fractionation Procedures for Experimental Purposes

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          Abstract

          Preparation of medicinal plants for experimental purposes is an initial step and key in achieving quality research outcome. It involves extraction and determination of quality and quantity of bioactive constituents before proceeding with the intended biological testing. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate various methods used in the preparation and screening of medicinal plants in our daily research. Although the extracts, bioactive fractions, or compounds obtained from medicinal plants are used for different purposes, the techniques involved in producing them are generally the same irrespective of the intended biological testing. The major stages included in acquiring quality bioactive molecule are the selection of an appropriate solvent, extraction methods, phytochemical screening procedures, fractionation methods, and identification techniques. The nitty-gritty of these methods and the exact road map followed solely depends on the research design. Solvents commonly used in extraction of medicinal plants are polar solvent (e.g., water, alcohols), intermediate polar (e.g., acetone, dichloromethane), and nonpolar (e.g., n-hexane, ether, chloroform). In general, extraction procedures include maceration, digestion, decoction, infusion, percolation, Soxhlet extraction, superficial extraction, ultrasound-assisted, and microwave-assisted extractions. Fractionation and purification of phytochemical substances are achieved through application of various chromatographic techniques such as paper chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Finally, compounds obtained are characterized using diverse identification techniques such as mass spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, different methods described above can be grouped and discussed according to the intended biological testing to guide young researchers and make them more focused.

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          Most cited references17

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          Which extractant should be used for the screening and isolation of antimicrobial components from plants?

          J.N. Eloff (1998)
          Freeze dried and finely ground leaves of two plants with known antimicrobial activity, Anthocleista grandiflora and Combretum erythrophyllum were extracted with acetone, ethanol, methanol, methylenedichloride, methanol/chloroform/water and water at a 1 to 10 ratio in each case. The quantity and diversity of compounds extracted, number of inhibitors extracted, rate of extraction, toxicity in a bioassay, ease of removal of solvent and biological hazard were evaluated for each extractant. An arbitrary scoring system was developed to evaluate the above parameters for the different extractants. Acetone gave the best results with these plants with an arbitrary value of 102 followed by methanol/chloroform/water (81), methylene dichloride (79), methanol (71), ethanol (58) and water (47). Four five minute sequential extractions of very finely ground A. grandiflora shaking at a high rate extracted 97% of the total antimicrobial activity.
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            Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from plants' extracts.

            Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Due to an increasing demand for chemical diversity in screening programs, seeking therapeutic drugs from natural products, interest particularly in edible plants has grown throughout the world. Botanicals and herbal preparations for medicinal usage contain various types of bioactive compounds. The focus of this paper is on the analytical methodologies, which include the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations. The common problems and key challenges in the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations are discussed. As extraction is the most important step in the analysis of constituents present in botanicals and herbal preparations, the strengths and weaknesses of different extraction techniques are discussed. The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and, TLC as well as non-chromatographic techniques such as immunoassay and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) are discussed.
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              A review on the extraction methods use in medicinal plants, principle, strength and limitation

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pharm Bioallied Sci
                J Pharm Bioallied Sci
                JPBS
                Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
                Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (India )
                0976-4879
                0975-7406
                Jan-Mar 2020
                29 January 2020
                : 12
                : 1
                : 1-10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
                [2 ]Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health, National Defence University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Prof. Mainul Haque, Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health, National Defence University Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. E-mail: runurono@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                JPBS-12-1
                10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_175_19
                7398001
                32801594
                a5c7121c-8db3-4197-9bdf-9109ac680fe2
                Copyright: © 2020 Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                History
                : 14 July 2019
                : 10 September 2019
                : 14 October 2019
                Categories
                Review Article

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                chromatography,extraction,fractionation,isolation,medicinal plants

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