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      Side effects of the natural pesticide Spinosad (GF-120 Formulation) on Eretmocerus paulistus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a parasitoid of the whitefly Aleurothrixus floccosus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), under laboratory conditions


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          V. Tello, L. Díaz, and M. Sánchez. 2013. Side effects of the natural pesticide Spinosad (GF-120 Formulation) on Eretmocerus paulistus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a parasitoid of the whitefly Aleurothrixus floccosus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), under laboratory conditions. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(2):407-417. The side effects of the insecticide GF-120 NF 0.02 Naturalyte CB® were evaluated on adults of Eretmocerus paulistus Hempel, a parasitoid of Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell) in citrus orchards of northern Chile. LC50 and LC90 were determined by applying the insecticide using a Potter tower in decreasing doses from 0.96 to 0.1 mg a.i. L-1 (corresponding to 1% to 0.1% of the recommended dose, respectively). After 24 h of exposure, the results were fitted to a probit model, and the LC50 and LC90 were estimated at 0.21 and 0.79 mg a.i. L-1, respectively. In feeding tests and evaluation of the toxic effect of dry residues of GF-120, it was determined that a high percentage of mortality (100%) was obtained using a combination of 24.0 mg a.i. L-1 x residues at 1 hour drying time. Residues at 96 h (4 days) drying time with concentrations of 38.4 or 24.0 mg a.i. L-1 caused mortalities over 60%. According to the classification of the IOBC (International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants) the manufacturer's recommended concentration of 96 mg a.i. L-1 was level 4, which is harmful (> 99%), as GF-120 concentrations can range from 0.77 to 72 mg a.i. L-1. The GF-120 residues applied on inert surfaces were harmful to E. paulistus with a high mortality rate under laboratory conditions. Field studies are needed to validate these results by evaluating parasitoid populations in insecticide-treated and untreated areas.

          Translated abstract

          V. Tello, L. Días y M. Sánchez. 2013. Side effects of natural pesticide spinosad (GF-120 formulation) on Eretmocerus paulistus parasitoid of the whitefly Aleurothrixus floccosus under laboratory conditions. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(2): 407-417. Se evaluó el efecto colateral del insecticida GF-120 NF Naturalyte 0.02 CB® sobre adultos de Eretmocerus paulistus, parasitoide de Aleurothrixus floccosus en cítricos en el norte de Chile. Se determinó la CL50 y CL90, aplicando el insecticida mediante torre Potter, en dosis decreciente desde 0,96 hasta 0,1 mg a.i. L-1 (correspondientes al 1% y al 0,1% de la dosis recomendada, respectivamente). Los resultados correspondientes a las 24 h se ajustaron a un modelo Probit y se estimaron en 0,21 y 0,79 mg i.a. L-1 (CL50 y CL90, respectivamente). En ensayos de alimentación y evaluación del efecto tóxico de residuos secos de GF-120, se determinó que la mayor mortalidad (100%) se obtuvo con una combinación de 24,0 mg i.a. L-1 X residuos de 1 hora. Residuos de 96 h (4 días), con concentraciones de 38,4 ó 24,0 mg i.a. L-1, produjeron mortalidades superiores al 60%. De acuerdo a la clasificación de la IOBC (International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants), la concentración recomendada por fabricante de 96 mg i.a. L-1 fue de nivel 4 (perjudicial, >99%), lo mismo ocurrió con concentraciones de GF-120 que variaron entre 0,77 a 72 mg i.a. L-1. Los residuos de GF-120, aplicados sobre superficies inertes fueron dañino para E. paulistus, con altas tasa de mortalidad bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Se requieren estudios de campo para validar estos resultados evaluando poblaciones del parasitoide en áreas tratadas y no tratadas con este insecticida.

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          Most cited references54

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          The non-target impact of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods.

          Spinosyn-based products, mostly spinosad, have been widely recommended by extension specialists and agribusiness companies; consequently, they have been used to control various pests in many different cropping systems. Following the worldwide adoption of spinosad-based products for integrated and organic farming, an increasing number of ecotoxicological studies have been published in the past 10 years. These studies are primarily related to the risk assessment of spinosad towards beneficial arthropods. This review takes into account recent data with the aim of (i) highlighting potentially adverse effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods (and hence on ecosystem services that they provide in agroecosystems), (ii) clarifying the range of methods used to address spinosyn side effects on biocontrol agents and pollinators in order to provide new insights for the development of more accurate bioassays, (iii) identifying pitfalls when analysing laboratory results to assess field risks and (iv) gaining increasing knowledge on side effects when using spinosad for integrated pest management (IPM) programmes and organic farming. For the first time, a thorough review of possible risks of spinosad and novel spinosyns (such as spinetoram) to beneficial arthropods (notably natural enemies and pollinators) is provided. The acute lethal effect and multiple sublethal effects have been identified in almost all arthropod groups studied. This review will help to optimise the future use of spinosad and new spinosyns in IPM programmes and for organic farming, notably by preventing the possible side effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
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            Natural products in crop protection.

            The tremendous increase in crop yields associated with the 'green' revolution has been possible in part by the discovery and utilization of chemicals for pest control. However, concerns over the potential impact of pesticides on human health and the environment has led to the introduction of new pesticide registration procedures, such as the Food Quality Protection Act in the United States. These new regulations have reduced the number of synthetic pesticides available in agriculture. Therefore, the current paradigm of relying almost exclusively on chemicals for pest control may need to be reconsidered. New pesticides, including natural product-based pesticides are being discovered and developed to replace the compounds lost due to the new registration requirements. This review covers the historical use of natural products in agricultural practices, the impact of natural products on the development of new pesticides, and the future prospects for natural products-based pest management.
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              The spinosyn family of insecticides: realizing the potential of natural products research.

              The spinosyns are a large family of unprecedented compounds produced from fermentation of two species of Saccharopolyspora. Their core structure is a polyketide-derived tetracyclic macrolide appended with two saccharides. They show potent insecticidal activities against many commercially significant species that cause extensive damage to crops and other plants. They also show activity against important external parasites of livestock, companion animals and humans. Spinosad is a defined combination of the two principal fermentation factors, spinosyns A and D. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) have been extensively studied, leading to development of a semisynthetic second-generation derivative, spinetoram. The spinosyns have a unique mechanism of action (MOA) involving disruption of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. When compared with many other insecticides, the spinosyns generally show greater selectivity toward target insects and lesser activity against many beneficial predators as well as mammals and other aquatic and avian animals. Their insecticidal spectrum, unique MOA and lower environmental effect make them useful new agents for modern integrated pest management programs. As a result, this work has received U S Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards.

                Author and article information

                Ciencia e investigación agraria
                Cienc. Inv. Agr.
                Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal (Santiago, , Chile )
                May 2013
                : 40
                : 2
                : 407-417
                [01] Iquique orgnameUniversidad Arturo Prat orgdiv1Facultad de Recursos Naturales Renovables Chile victor.tello@ 123456unap.cl
                [02] Iquique orgnameMinisterio de Agricultura orgdiv1Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero Chile
                S0718-16202013000200015 S0718-1620(13)04000200015

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 25 June 2012
                : 24 February 2013
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 55, Pages: 11

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                toxicidad,Bioassays,insect parasitoids,natural pesticide,residual effect,side effects,toxicity,bioensayos,efectos colaterales,efecto residual,insectos parasitoides,pesticida natural


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