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      Wide-spectrum biomimetic antimicrobial systems

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          ABSTRACT

          Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effective components of the host immune response and are widely distributed throughout nature. Recently, nontoxic antimicrobial polymers that mimic the structures of naturally occurring AMPs have been designed and are under development commercially as novel therapeutics. These compounds have several potential advantages over natural AMPs, including greater stability and reduced immunogenicity compared to natural peptides, relatively simple and scalable syntheses and the ability to tailor or “fine tune” their activities through combinatorial approaches. In previous work, we demonstrated the utility of certain generally regarded as safe (GRAS) flavorant and aroma compounds as enhancers of uptake and activity of clinically important antibiotics ( Brehm-Stecher & Johnson, 2003). Here, we have extended this approach to include enhancement of biomimetic antimicrobial polymers. Three low molecular weight (<1000 D), broad-spectrum arylamide polymers (PolyMedix, Inc., Radnor, PA) were examined for their antimicrobial activities against gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, both alone and when co-administered with sesquiterpenoid enhancers. Assay formats included disk diffusion, automated turbidimetry, time course (kinetic) plating of antimicrobial-treated cell suspensions, outer membrane assays with 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Although results differed according to the polymer and test organism used, treatments containing sesquiterpenoids were marked by either increased ZOIs, decreased MICs or more rapid inactivation when compared with polymer-only treatments. Antimicrobial activity, expressed as decimal reduction times (D-value), showed that after 5 min, the combination of sesquiterpenoid and polymer was significantly different from the controls ( p < 0.05) with a D-value of 3.92 min when incubated with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Collectively, our results indicate that the combination of sesquiterpenoid-enhancing agents with biomimetic antimicrobial polymers shows promise for the development of new, faster-acting and more broadly effective antimicrobial therapies.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Role of membranes in the activities of antimicrobial cationic peptides.

          Cationic amphiphilic peptides that are found throughout nature have very broad-spectrum activities against microbes. The initial sites of interaction are with microbial membranes. Although dogma suggests that their lethal action involves disruption of the cytoplasmic membranes, a number of cationic peptides can traverse intact membranes to interact with internal targets.
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            De novo design of biomimetic antimicrobial polymers.

            The design of polymers and oligomers that mimic the complex structures and remarkable biological properties of proteins is an important endeavor with both fundamental and practical implications. Recently, a number of nonnatural peptides with designed sequences have been elaborated to provide biologically active structures; in particular, facially amphiphilic peptides built from beta-amino acids have been shown to mimic both the structures as well as the biological function of natural antimicrobial peptides such as magainins and cecropins. However, these natural peptides as well as their beta-peptide analogues are expensive to prepare and difficult to produce on a large scale, limiting their potential use to certain pharmaceutical applications. We therefore have designed a series of facially amphiphilic arylamide polymers that capture the physical and biological properties of this class of antimicrobial peptides, but are easy to prepare from inexpensive monomers. The design process was aided by molecular calculations with density functional theory-computed torsional potentials. This new class of amphiphilic polymers may be applied in situations where inexpensive antimicrobial agents are required.
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              Enhancement of nisin, lysozyme, and monolaurin antimicrobial activities by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and lactoferrin.

              A microtiter plate assay was employed to systematically assess the interaction between ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or lactoferrin and nisin, lysozyme, or monolaurin against strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Low levels of EDTA acted synergistically with nisin and lysozyme against L. monocytogenes but EDTA and monolaurin interacted additively against this microorganism. EDTA synergistically enhanced the activity of nisin, monolaurin, and lysozyme in tryptic soy broth (TSB) against two enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains. In addition, various combinations of nisin, lysozyme, and monolaurin with EDTA were bactericidal to some gram-negative bacteria whereas none of the antimicrobials alone were bactericidal. Lactoferrin alone (2000 microg ml(-1)) did not inhibit any of the bacterial strains, but did enhance nisin activity against both L. monocytogenes strains. Lactoferrin in combination with monolaurin inhibited growth of E. coli O157:H7 but not E. coli O104:H21. While lactoferrin combined with nisin or monolaurin did not completely inhibit growth of the gram-negative bacteria, there was some growth inhibition. All combinations of EDTA or lactoferrin with antimicrobials were less effective in 2% fat UHT milk than in TSB. S. enteritidis and P. fluorescens strains were consistently more resistant to antimicrobial combinations. Resistance may be due to differences in the outer membrane and/or LPS structure.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                SOR-LIFE
                ScienceOpen Research
                ScienceOpen
                2199-1006
                29 December 2016
                : 0 (ID: )
                : 0
                : 1-9
                Affiliations
                Rapid Microbial Detection and Control Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author’s e-mail address: byron@ 123456iastate.edu
                Article
                201701
                10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-LIFE.CMGPSN.v1
                © 2017 Wright and Brehm-Stecher

                This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 22, Pages: 9
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