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      Evaluación del cambio del algoritmo de diagnóstico serológico para la enfermedad de Chagas en Colombia Translated title: Evaluation of a change in the serological diagnostic algorithm for Chagas disease in Colombia Translated title: Avaliação da mudança do algoritmo de diagnóstico sorológico da doença de Chagas na Colômbia

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          RESUMEN

          Objetivo.

          Evaluar los efectos del cambio del algoritmo de diagnóstico serológico para la infección por T. cruzi en los Laboratorios de Salud Pública Departamentales y en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Colombia, desde una perspectiva del acceso al diagnóstico.

          Métodos.

          Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, a partir de fuentes secundarias entre el 2015 y 2021, se consolidó el número de ensayos serológicos realizados por los laboratorios. Se elaboró una encuesta para identificar beneficios y limitaciones en la implementación del nuevo algoritmo de diagnóstico serológico. Se estimaron totales, proporciones y promedios del número de pruebas comparando dos periodos diferentes.

          Resultados.

          Se analizó la información de 33 Laboratorios de Salud Pública, encontrando que el 87,9% de ellos procesaron ensayos serológicos durante el periodo analizado. El uso de las pruebas serológicas aumentó después de la publicación del nuevo lineamiento en 2017 y la capacidad de realización de la segunda prueba paso de 4 a 33 Laboratorios de Salud Pública. La ELISA de antígenos totales y de antígenos recombinantes se consolidaron como las pruebas más realizadas en Colombia después del 2017.

          Conclusiones.

          El cambio del algoritmo de diagnóstico serológico para la enfermedad de Chagas en Colombia en 2017 tuvo efectos positivos en el acceso al diagnóstico ya que facilitó el uso de la segunda prueba, esta modificación se tradujo en aumento de la cobertura diagnóstica. Los laboratorios del país tienen disponible un algoritmo sencillo, oportuno, de calidad y que podría ser implementado en casi cualquier laboratorio clínico del país.

          ABSTRACT

          Objective.

          To evaluate the effects of changing the algorithm for serological diagnosis of T. cruzi infection in departmental-level public health laboratories and in the National Reference Laboratory of Colombia, from the perspective of access to diagnosis.

          Methods.

          A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out, based on secondary sources between 2015 and 2021, consolidating the number of serological tests carried out by the laboratories. A survey was developed to identify benefits and limitations in the implementation of the new algorithm for serological diagnosis. Totals, proportions, and averages of the number of tests were estimated by comparing two different periods.

          Results.

          Information from 33 public health laboratories was analyzed, 87.9% of which processed serological assays during the period under study. The use of serological tests increased after the publication of the new guideline in 2017, and the capacity to perform the second test increased from four to 33 public health laboratories. In absolute terms, ELISAs for antigens and recombinant antigens became the most performed tests in Colombia after 2017.

          Conclusions.

          The change in the algorithm for serological diagnosis of Chagas disease in Colombia in 2017 had positive effects on access to diagnosis since it facilitated the use of the second test. This change resulted in increased diagnostic coverage. The country’s laboratories have access to a simple, timely, quality algorithm that could be implemented in almost any clinical laboratory in the country.

          RESUMO

          Objetivo.

          Avaliar os efeitos da mudança do algoritmo de diagnóstico sorológico da infecção por T. cruzi nos Laboratórios Departamentais de Saúde Pública e no Laboratório Nacional de Referência da Colômbia desde a perspectiva do acesso ao diagnóstico.

          Métodos.

          Foi realizado um estudo descritivo transversal a partir de fontes secundárias do período entre 2015 e 2021, consolidando-se o número de testes sorológicos realizados pelos laboratórios. Foi desenvolvido um questionário para identificar benefícios e limitações na implementação do novo algoritmo de diagnóstico sorológico. Os totais, as proporções e as médias do número de testes foram estimados pela comparação de dois períodos diferentes.

          Resultados.

          Dados de 33 laboratórios de saúde pública foram analisados, e constatou-se que 87,9% processaram testes sorológicos durante o período analisado. O uso de testes sorológicos aumentou após a publicação das novas diretrizes em 2017, e a capacidade de realizar um segundo teste aumentou de 4 para 33 laboratórios de saúde pública. O ELISA com antígeno total e o ELISA com antígeno recombinante se consolidaram como os testes mais realizados na Colômbia após 2017.

          Conclusões.

          A mudança no algoritmo de diagnóstico sorológico da doença de Chagas na Colômbia em 2017 teve efeitos positivos no acesso ao diagnóstico, facilitando o uso do segundo teste, o que resultou em maior cobertura diagnóstica. Os laboratórios do país têm à sua disposição um algoritmo simples, oportuno e de alta qualidade que poderia ser implementado em quase todos os laboratórios clínicos do país.

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          Most cited references27

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          Chagas disease

          Chagas disease is an anthropozoonosis from the American continent that has spread from its original boundaries through migration. It is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which was identified in the first decade of the 20th century. Once acute infection resolves, patients can develop chronic disease, which in up to 30-40% of cases is characterised by cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, megaviscera, and, more rarely, polyneuropathy and stroke. Even after more than a century, many challenges remain unresolved, since epidemiological control and diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic methods must be improved. In particular, the efficacy and tolerability profile of therapeutic agents is far from ideal. Furthermore, the population affected is older and more complex (eg, immunosuppressed patients and patients with cancer). Nevertheless, in recent years, our knowledge of Chagas disease has expanded, and the international networking needed to change the course of this deadly disease during the 21st century has begun.
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            Chagas’ Disease

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              Prevalence of Chagas disease in Colombia: A systematic review and meta-analysis

              Background Despite the adoption of campaigns to interrupt the main vector and to detect Trypanosoma cruzi in blood banks, millions of people are still chronically infected; however, the prevalence data are limited, and the epidemiology of Chagas disease has not been systematically evaluated. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Chagas disease in Colombia. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to select all observational studies reporting the prevalence of Chagas disease in Colombia, based on serological diagnosis in participants of any age and published between January 2007 and November 2017. Pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using random-effects models. In addition, the I2 statistic was calculated. Results The literature search yielded a total of 1,510 studies; sixteen articles with relevant prevalence data were included in the systematic review. Of these, only 12 articles were included for entry in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of Chagas disease across studies was 2.0% (95% CI: 1.0–4.0). A high degree of heterogeneity was found among studies (I2 > 75%; p < 0.001). The publication bias was not statistically significant (Egger’s test, p = 0.078). The highest pooled prevalences were found in the adult population (3.0%, 95% CI: 1.0–4.0), pregnant women (3.0%, 95% CI: 3.0–4.0) and the Orinoco region (7.0%, 95% CI: 2.2–12.6). Conclusions The results indicate that the T. cruzi-infected population is aging, the adult population, pregnant women and that the Orinoco region (department of Casanare) have the highest prevalences. These results highlight the need to maintain screening and surveillance programs to identify people with chronic T. cruzi infections.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Rev Panam Salud Publica
                Rev Panam Salud Publica
                rpsp
                Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
                Organización Panamericana de la Salud
                1020-4989
                1680-5348
                24 October 2023
                2023
                : 47
                : e141
                Affiliations
                [1 ] orgnameDrugs for Neglected Diseases initiative Rio de Janeiro Brasil originalDrugs for Neglected Diseases initiative, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
                [2 ] orgnameInstituto Nacional de Salud Bogotá Colombia originalInstituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, Colombia.
                Author notes
                Ricardo Andrés Caicedo Díaz, acaicedo@ 123456extern.dndi.org
                Article
                RPSP.2023.141
                10.26633/RPSP.2023.141
                10597392
                37881802
                a5e591b3-ed99-43ae-906b-e7bdb994a428

                Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la licencia Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 IGO, que permite su uso, distribución y reproducción en cualquier medio, siempre que el trabajo original se cite de la manera adecuada. No se permiten modificaciones a los artículos ni su uso comercial. Al reproducir un artículo no debe haber ningún indicio de que la OPS o el artículo avalan a una organización o un producto específico. El uso del logo de la OPS no está permitido. Esta leyenda debe conservarse, junto con la URL original del artículo. Crédito del logo y texto open access: PLoS, bajo licencia Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported.

                History
                : 21 June 2023
                : 11 August 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 25
                Funding
                Funded by: Takeda Foundation;
                Award ID:  
                DNDi recibió apoyo financiero para este trabajo de Takeda Foundation. Los resultados y conclusiones aquí contenidos son de los autores y no reflejan necesariamente las posiciones o políticas de los organismos de financiación mencionados.
                Categories
                Investigación Original

                enfermedad de chagas,diagnóstico serológico,cobertura de los servicios de salud,colombia,chagas disease,serologic tests,health services coverage,doença de chagas,testes sorológicos,cobertura de serviços de saúde,colômbia

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