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      Advances in paediatrics in 2016: current practices and challenges in allergy, autoimmune diseases, cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nephrology, neurology, nutrition, pulmonology

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          Abstract

          This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated. New diagnostic tools are available for ascertaining brucellosis, celiac disease and viral infections. The usefulness of aCGH as first-tier test is confirmed in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. Novel information have been provided on the safety of milk for infants. Recent advances in the treatment of common disorders, including neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, hypo-glycemia in newborns, atopic dermatitis, constipation, cyclic vomiting syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, regurgitation, short stature, secretions in children with cerebral palsy have been reported. Antipyretics treatment has been updated by national guidelines and studies have excluded side effects (e.g. asthma risk during acetaminophen therapy). Vaccinations are a painful event and several options are reported to prevent this pain. Adverse effects due to metabolic abnormalities are reported for second generation antipsychotic drugs.

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          Venous thromboembolic complications (VTE) in children: first analyses of the Canadian Registry of VTE.

          Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) occur in pediatric patients; however, the incidence, associated morbidity, and mortality are unknown. A Canadian registry of DVT and PE in children (ages 1 month to 18 years) was established July 1, 1990 in 15 tertiary-care pediatric centers. One-hundred thirty-seven patients were identified prospectively and are the subject of this report. The incidence of DVT/PE was 5.3/10,000 hospital admissions or 0.07/10,000 children in Canada. Infants under 1 year old and teenagers predominated with equal numbers of both sexes. DVT were located in the upper (n = 50) and lower (n = 79) venous system, or as PE alone (n = 8). Central venous lines (CVLs) were present in approximately 33% of children with DVT (n = 45). Associated conditions were present in 96% of children and 90% of children had two or more associated conditions for DVT. DVT was diagnosed by venography (n = 83), duplex ultrasound (n = 37), and other combinations (n = 17). Twenty-two of the 31 ventilation/perfusion scans performed were interpreted as high-probability scans for PE. Therapy consisted of heparin (n = 115), thrombolysis (n = 15), surgical removal of a CVL or thrombus (n = 22), and oral anticoagulant therapy (n = 103). Significant bleeding complications did not occur. However, three (2.2%) children died as a direct consequence of their thromboembolic disease; DVT reoccurred in 23 children and postphlebitic syndrome (PPS) occurred in 26. In conclusion, DVTs occur in a significant number of hospitalized children with a mortality of 2.2%. Complications are not hemorrhagic, but thrombotic, and characterized by PE, recurrent disease, and PPS. In contrast to adults, the upper venous system is frequently affected because of the use of CVLs. The frequency of DVT/PE justifies controlled trials of primary prophylaxis in high-risk groups, and therapeutic trials to determine optimal treatment.
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            Effect of vitamin D3 on asthma treatment failures in adults with symptomatic asthma and lower vitamin D levels: the VIDA randomized clinical trial.

            In asthma and other diseases, vitamin D insufficiency is associated with adverse outcomes. It is not known if supplementing inhaled corticosteroids with oral vitamin D3 improves outcomes in patients with asthma and vitamin D insufficiency. To evaluate if vitamin D supplementation would improve the clinical efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with symptomatic asthma and lower vitamin D levels. The VIDA (Vitamin D Add-on Therapy Enhances Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Asthma) randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial studying adult patients with symptomatic asthma and a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of less than 30 ng/mL was conducted across 9 academic US medical centers in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's AsthmaNet network, with enrollment starting in April 2011 and follow-up complete by January 2014. After a run-in period that included treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid, 408 patients were randomized. Oral vitamin D3 (100,000 IU once, then 4000 IU/d for 28 weeks; n = 201) or placebo (n = 207) was added to inhaled ciclesonide (320 µg/d). If asthma control was achieved after 12 weeks, ciclesonide was tapered to 160 µg/d for 8 weeks, then to 80 µg/d for 8 weeks if asthma control was maintained. The primary outcome was time to first asthma treatment failure (a composite outcome of decline in lung function and increases in use of β-agonists, systemic corticosteroids, and health care). Treatment with vitamin D3 did not alter the rate of first treatment failure during 28 weeks (28% [95% CI, 21%-34%] with vitamin D3 vs 29% [95% CI, 23%-35%] with placebo; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.9 [95% CI, 0.6-1.3]). Of 14 prespecified secondary outcomes, 9 were analyzed, including asthma exacerbation; of those 9, the only statistically significant outcome was a small difference in the overall dose of ciclesonide required to maintain asthma control (111.3 µg/d [95% CI, 102.2-120.4 µg/d] in the vitamin D3 group vs 126.2 µg/d [95% CI, 117.2-135.3 µg/d] in the placebo group; difference of 14.9 µg/d [95% CI, 2.1-27.7 µg/d]). Vitamin D3 did not reduce the rate of first treatment failure or exacerbation in adults with persistent asthma and vitamin D insufficiency. These findings do not support a strategy of therapeutic vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with symptomatic asthma. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01248065.
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              Confirmation of chromosomal microarray as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test for individuals with developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders and dysmorphic features.

              Submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements are the most common identifiable causes of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders associated with dysmorphic features. Chromosomal microarray (CMA) can detect copy number variants <1 Mb and identifies size and presence of known genes. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of CMA, as a first-tier tool in detecting the etiology of unexplained intellectual disability/autism spectrum disorders (ID/ASDs) associated with dysmorphic features in a large cohort of pediatric patients. We studied 349 individuals; 223 males, 126 females, aged 5 months-19 years. Blood samples were analyzed with CMA at a resolution ranging from 1 Mb to 40 Kb. The imbalance was confirmed by FISH or qPCR. We considered copy number variants (CNVs) causative if the variant was responsible for a known syndrome, encompassed gene/s of known function, occurred de novo or, if inherited, the parent was variably affected, and/or the involved gene/s had been reported in association with ID/ASDs in dedicated databases. 91 CNVs were detected in 77 (22.06%) patients: 5 (6.49%) of those presenting with borderline cognitive impairment, 54 (70.13%) with a variable degree of DD/ID, and 18/77 (23.38%) with ID of variable degree and ASDs. 16/77 (20.8%) patients had two different rearrangements. Deletions exceeded duplications (58 versus 33); 45.05% (41/91) of the detected CNVs were de novo, 45.05% (41/91) inherited, and 9.9% (9/91) unknown. The CNVs caused the phenotype in 57/77 (74%) patients; 12/57 (21.05%) had ASDs/ID, and 45/57 (78.95%) had DD/ID. Our study provides further evidence of the high diagnostic yield of CMA for genetic testing in children with unexplained ID/ASDs who had dysmorphic features. We confirm the value of CMA as the first-tier tool in the assessment of those conditions in the pediatric setting. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                carlo.caffarelli@unipr.it
                santamar@unina.it
                dora.dimauro@hotmail.com
                carla.mastrorilli@icloud.com
                amina2004@virgilio.it
                sbernasconi3@gmail.com
                Journal
                Ital J Pediatr
                Ital J Pediatr
                Italian Journal of Pediatrics
                BioMed Central (London )
                1824-7288
                16 September 2017
                16 September 2017
                2017
                : 43
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1758 0937, GRID grid.10383.39, Clinica Pediatrica, Department of Medicine and Surgery, , Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria, University of Parma, ; Via Gramsci, 14 Parma, Italy
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0790 385X, GRID grid.4691.a, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, , Federico II University, ; Naples, Italy
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2181 4941, GRID grid.412451.7, Pediatrics Honorary Member University Faculty, G D’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, ; Chieti, Italy
                Article
                401
                10.1186/s13052-017-0401-9
                5602868
                28915908
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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