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      Sustainable Agriculture through Multidisciplinary Seed Nanopriming: Prospects of Opportunities and Challenges

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          Abstract

          The global community decided in 2015 to improve people’s lives by 2030 by setting 17 global goals for sustainable development. The second goal of this community was to end hunger. Plant seeds are an essential input in agriculture; however, during their developmental stages, seeds can be negatively affected by environmental stresses, which can adversely affect seed vigor, seedling establishment, and crop production. Seeds resistant to high salinity, droughts and climate change can result in higher crop yield. The major findings suggested in this review refer nanopriming as an emerging seed technology towards sustainable food amid growing demand with the increasing world population. This novel growing technology could influence the crop yield and ensure the quality and safety of seeds, in a sustainable way. When nanoprimed seeds are germinated, they undergo a series of synergistic events as a result of enhanced metabolism: modulating biochemical signaling pathways, trigger hormone secretion, reduce reactive oxygen species leading to improved disease resistance. In addition to providing an overview of the challenges and limitations of seed nanopriming technology, this review also describes some of the emerging nano-seed priming methods for sustainable agriculture, and other technological developments using cold plasma technology and machine learning.

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          Aquaporin-facilitated transmembrane diffusion of hydrogen peroxide.

          Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important signaling compound that has recently been identified as a new substrate for several members of the aquaporin superfamily in various organisms. Evidence is emerging about the physiological significance of aquaporin-facilitated H2O2 diffusion.
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            Aquaporins in Plants.

            Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations, transport selectivity, and regulation properties. Plant aquaporins are localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, plastids and, in some species, in membrane compartments interacting with symbiotic organisms. Plant aquaporins can transport various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and ammonia or metalloids such as boron and silicon. Structure-function studies are developed to address the molecular and cellular mechanisms of plant aquaporin gating and subcellular trafficking. Phosphorylation plays a central role in these two processes. These mechanisms allow aquaporin regulation in response to signaling intermediates such as cytosolic pH and calcium, and reactive oxygen species. Combined genetic and physiological approaches are now integrating this knowledge, showing that aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation in roots and leaves, during drought but also in response to stimuli as diverse as flooding, nutrient availability, temperature, or light. A general hydraulic control of plant tissue expansion by aquaporins is emerging, and their role in key developmental processes (seed germination, emergence of lateral roots) has been established. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant tolerance to stresses. In conclusion, research on aquaporins delineates ever expanding fields in plant integrative biology thereby establishing their crucial role in plants.
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              Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Agricultural Sustainability—A Review

              Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) shows an important role in the sustainable agriculture industry. The increasing demand for crop production with a significant reduction of synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides use is a big challenge nowadays. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environmentally sound way of increasing crop yields by facilitating plant growth through either a direct or indirect mechanism. The mechanisms of PGPR include regulating hormonal and nutritional balance, inducing resistance against plant pathogens, and solubilizing nutrients for easy uptake by plants. In addition, PGPR show synergistic and antagonistic interactions with microorganisms within the rhizosphere and beyond in bulk soil, which indirectly boosts plant growth rate. There are many bacteria species that act as PGPR, described in the literature as successful for improving plant growth. However, there is a gap between the mode of action (mechanism) of the PGPR for plant growth and the role of the PGPR as biofertilizer—thus the importance of nano-encapsulation technology in improving the efficacy of PGPR. Hence, this review bridges the gap mentioned and summarizes the mechanism of PGPR as a biofertilizer for agricultural sustainability.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                CELLC6
                Cells
                Cells
                MDPI AG
                2073-4409
                September 2021
                September 15 2021
                : 10
                : 9
                : 2428
                Article
                10.3390/cells10092428
                34572078
                a5e877f8-3c86-4ec9-85e0-5b47dbea9eaa
                © 2021
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