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      MicroRNAs, New Players in the Plant–Nematode Interaction

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          Abstract

          Plant-parasitic root-knot and cyst nematodes are microscopic worms that cause severe damage to crops and induce major agricultural losses worldwide. These parasites penetrate into host roots and induce the formation of specialized feeding structures, which supply the resources required for nematode development. Root-knot nematodes induce the redifferentiation of five to seven root cells into giant multinucleate feeding cells, whereas cyst nematodes induce the formation of a multinucleate syncytium by targeting a single root cell. Transcriptomic analyses have shown that the induction of these feeding cells by nematodes involves an extensive reprogramming of gene expression within the targeted root cells. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that act as key regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes by inducing the posttranscriptional silencing of protein coding genes, including many genes encoding transcription factors. A number of microRNAs (miRNAs) displaying changes in expression in root cells in response to nematode infection have recently been identified in various plant species. Modules consisting of miRNAs and the transcription factors they target were recently shown to be required for correct feeding site formation. Examples include miR396 and GRF in soybean syncytia and miR159 and MYB33 in Arabidopsis giant cells. Moreover, some conserved miRNA/target modules seem to have similar functions in feeding site formation in different plant species. These miRNAs may be master regulators of the reprogramming of expression occurring during feeding site formation. This review summarizes current knowledge about the role of these plant miRNAs in plant–nematode interactions.

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          Most cited references 48

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          A microRNA as a translational repressor of APETALA2 in Arabidopsis flower development.

           X. Chen (2004)
          Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) show a high degree of sequence complementarity to, and are believed to guide the cleavage of, their target messenger RNAs. Here, I show that miRNA172, which can base-pair with the messenger RNA of a floral homeotic gene, APETALA2, regulates APETALA2 expression primarily through translational inhibition. Elevated miRNA172 accumulation results in floral organ identity defects similar to those in loss-of-function apetala2 mutants. Elevated levels of mutant APETALA2 RNA with disrupted miRNA172 base pairing, but not wild-type APETALA2 RNA, result in elevated levels of APETALA2 protein and severe floral patterning defects. Therefore, miRNA172 likely acts in cell-fate specification as a translational repressor of APETALA2 in Arabidopsis flower development.
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            Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology.

            The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a 'top 10' list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region of the world in which a researcher is based. However, care was taken to include researchers from as many parts of the world as possible when carrying out the survey. The top 10 list emerging from the survey is composed of: (1) root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); (2) cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.); (3) root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.); (4) the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis; (5) Ditylenchus dipsaci; (6) the pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; (7) the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; (8) Xiphinema index (the only virus vector nematode to make the list); (9) Nacobbus aberrans; and (10) Aphelenchoides besseyi. The biology of each nematode (or nematode group) is reviewed briefly. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
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              MtHAP2-1 is a key transcriptional regulator of symbiotic nodule development regulated by microRNA169 in Medicago truncatula.

              In the model legume Medicago truncatula, we identified a new transcription factor of the CCAAT-binding family, MtHAP2-1, for which RNA interference (RNAi) and in situ hybridization experiments indicate a key role during nodule development, possibly by controlling nodule meristem function. We could also show that MtHAP2-1 is regulated by microRNA169, whose overexpression leads to the same nodule developmental block as MtHAP2-1 RNAi constructs. The complementary expression pattern of miR169 and MtHAP2-1 and the phenotype of miR169-resistant MtHAP2-1 nodules strongly suggest, in addition, that the miR169-mediated restriction of MtHAP2-1 expression to the nodule meristematic zone is essential for the differentiation of nodule cells.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                URI : https://loop.frontiersin.org/people/547265
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                17 October 2019
                2019
                : 10
                Affiliations
                ISA, INRA, Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS , Sophia Antipolis, France
                Author notes

                Edited by: Brigitte Mauch-Mani, Université de Neuchâtel, Switzerland

                Reviewed by: Matthew Robert Tucker, University of Adelaide, Australia; John Paul Alvarez, Monash University, Australia

                *Correspondence: Stéphanie Jaubert-Possamai, stephanie.jaubert@ 123456inra.fr

                This article was submitted to Plant Microbe Interactions, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2019.01180
                6811602
                Copyright © 2019 Jaubert-Possamai, Noureddine and Favery

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 62, Pages: 8, Words: 3776
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Mini Review

                Plant science & Botany

                sirnas, micrornas, syncytium, galls, cyst nematodes, root-knot nematodes

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