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      Maldescendus testis

      ,

      Hormone Research in Paediatrics

      S. Karger AG

      Cryptorchidism, Testis, Germ cell, Sertoli, hCG treatment, Orchidopexy

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          Abstract

          Maldescendus testis is a common congenital abnormality occurring in 2–5% of full-term boys at birth in the Western countries. By 3 months of age, the incidence rate spontaneously reduces to 1–2% in this group. The etiology of the disorder is not known, but normal hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is usually a prerequisite for normal descent of the testes. Abnormal sexual differentiation is associated with maldescent. However, the majority of boys with maldescended testes show no endocrine abnormalities after birth. Several defects in developmental genes, such as homeobox genes and Insl3, have been described to cause cryptorchidism in mice, and disturbances in the regulation of these genes or their mutations may explain etiology of a large part of human testicular maldescent in the future. Increased degeneration of germ cells can be observed in undescended testes after the first year, and therefore early treatment is recommended. Surgical treatment is the most effective and reliable method to bring testes into the scrotum, but hormone treatment with either hCG or GnRH analogues can be considered, particularly in cases where testes can be palpated in high scrotal position. The efficacy of hormone treatment is less than 20% and depends on the initial location of the testis. Nonpalpable testes rarely descend with hormone treatment. Both surgery and hormone treatment can have untoward effects. Treatment with hCG has been associated with an inflammation-like reaction in the testes and an increased rate of apoptosis of germ cells leading to a reduced adult size of the testes. Vascular complications can occur during surgery, particularly in staged orchidopexies. Men with a history of undescended testis have an increased risk of testicular cancer. Impaired fertility is another long-term risk associated to maldescended testes. Fertility potential may be improved by early treatment. Although our knowledge on cryptorchidism has increased considerably during the last decades, many questions remain to be answered: Is the incidence rate increasing? What is causing maldescent? Do hormones have any role in the treatment?

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          Most cited references 3

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          Longitudinal Reproductive Hormone Profiles in Infants: Peak of Inhibin B Levels in Infant Boys Exceeds Levels in Adult Men

           A-M Andersson (1998)
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            The role of target muscles in the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide mRNA in the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus

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              The Results of Surgical Therapy for Cryptorchidism

               Steven Docimo (1995)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                1999
                December 1999
                10 January 2000
                : 51
                : 6
                : 261-269
                Affiliations
                Departments of Paediatrics and Physiology, University of Turku, Finland
                Article
                23412 Horm Res 1999;51:261–269
                10.1159/000023412
                10640886
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 94, Pages: 9
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