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      Miscarriage history and Toxoplasma gondii infection: A cross-sectional study in women in Durango City, Mexico

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          Through a cross-sectional study design, 326 women with a history of miscarriage were examined for anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in Durango City, Mexico. Prevalence association with sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics in women with miscarriage was also investigated.

          Twenty-two (6.7%) of the 326 women studied had anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies and two (0.6%) were also positive for anti- T. gondii IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was not influenced by age, birth place, occupation, educational level, or socioeconomic status. In contrast, logistic regression showed that T. gondii exposure was associated with consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR = 6.84; 95% CI: 1.04–44.95; P = 0.04) and consumption of chicken brains (OR = 18.48; 95% CI: 1.26–269.43; P = 0.03).

          This is the first study on the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in women with a history of miscarriage in Northern Mexico. Of interest, we also observed an association of T. gondii exposure with consumption of chicken brains. Contributing factors for T. gondii exposure found in the present study should be taken into consideration for public health measures to avoid infection with T. gondii and its sequelae.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in general population in a northern Mexican city.

          There is a lack of information about the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in the general population of Durango City, Mexico. Anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 974 inhabitants in Durango City, Mexico with the use of enzyme-linked immunoassays. in total, 59 (6.1%) of 974 participants (mean age 37 ± 16.1 yr) had IgG anti- T. gondii antibodies. Twenty (2.1%) of them also had IgM anti- T. gondii antibodies. IgG levels of 13-99, 100-150, and >150 International Units (IU)/ml were found in 14 (23.7%), 3 (5.1%), and 42 (71.2%) anti- T. gondii IgG-positive participants, respectively. Prevalence of infection increased with age (P < 0.05), and was significantly lower in participants born in Durango State than those born in other Mexican states (P < 0.01). Toxoplasma gondii infection was significantly associated with consumption of boar meat (adjusted odds ratio [OR]  =  3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-6.13), and squirrel meat (adjusted OR  =  2.18; 95% CI: 1.17-4.09). in addition, infection was negatively associated with travel abroad (adjusted OR  =  0.42; 95% CI: 0.23-0.77), and salami consumption (adjusted OR  =  0.57; 95% CI: 0.32-0.99). This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for T. gondii infection in general population in Durango City, and of an association of the consumption of boar meat with T. gondii infection. This study provides a basis for the design of successful preventive measures against T. gondii infection.
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            Congenital toxoplasmosis--prenatal aspects of Toxoplasma gondii infection.

            Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is the cause of toxoplasmosis. Primary infection in an immunocompetent person is usually asymptomatic. Serological surveys demonstrate that world-wide exposure to T. gondii is high (30% in US and 50-80% in Europe). Vertical transmission from a recently infected pregnant woman to her fetus may lead to congenital toxoplasmosis. The risk of such transmission increases as primary maternal infection occurs later in pregnancy. However, consequences for the fetus are more severe with transmission closer to conception. The timing of maternal primary infection is, therefore, critically linked to the clinical manifestations of the infection. Fetal infection may result in natural abortion. Often, no apparent symptoms are observed at birth and complications develop only later in life. The laboratory methods of assessing fetal risk of T. gondii infection are serology and direct tests. Screening programs for women at childbearing age or of the newborn, as well as education of the public regarding infection prevention, proved to be cost-effective and reduce the rate of infection. The impact of antiparasytic therapy on vertical transmission from mother to fetus is still controversial. However, specific therapy is recommended to be initiated as soon as infection is diagnosed.
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              Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Durango, Mexico.

              The epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Mexico is largely unknown. The seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in 439 pregnant women from 9 communities in rural Durango State, Mexico was investigated. Using commercial enzyme-linked immunoassays, sera were tested for T. gondii IgG, IgM, and avidity antibodies. Prevalences of T. gondii IgG antibodies in the communities varied from 0% to 20%. Overall, 36 (8.2%) of the 439 women had IgG T. gondii antibodies. Ten (2.3%) women had also T. gondii IgM antibodies; IgG avidity was high in all IgM-positive women, suggesting chronic infection. None of the women, however, had delivered a known T. gondii-infected child. The seroprevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in women from low socio-economic conditions (14%) than in those with higher socio-economic status (6.6%). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with soil floors at home (adjusted OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.12-7.49). This is the first epidemiological study of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Mexico.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                1 June 2014
                : 4
                : 2
                : 117-122
                [ 1 ] Biomedical Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State, venida Universidad S/N, 34000, Durango, Mexico
                [ 2 ] Institute for Scientific Research “Dr. Roberto Rivera-Damm,”, Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000, Durango, Mexico
                [ 3 ] Health Center 450, Secretary of Health, Toma de Zacateas 129, 34000, Durango, Mexico
                [ 4 ] Faculty of Nursing and Obstetrics, Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Cuauhtémoc 223, 34000, Durango, Mexico
                [ 5 ] Institute for Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité Medical School, Hindenburgdamm 27, D-12203, Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ] 0052-618-8130527, 0052-618-8130527, alvaradocosme@
                Original Article


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