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      The Effects of Synchronization With Either Joyful or Angry People on Perception of an Emotionally Neutral Person


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          Synchronization has been shown to play an important role in social life through its effects on interactions between people and the quality of these interactions. However, little is known about how observing synchronization affects perceptions of the synchronized individuals. This paper examines how observed synchronization influences perceptions of a neutral person depending on the emotional valence of the faces with which they are synchronized. Two different forms of synchronization were used in these studies: synchronous flashing of faces and faces moving in a common direction. We hypothesized that observed synchronization biases the perception of emotions expressed by a neutral person and an observer’s attitude towards this person. These effects are expected to be congruent with the valence of the synchronizing faces. The results showed a divergent pattern of effects for different forms of synchronization. In Study 1, synchronous flashing biased only the perceived emotions. In Study 2, synchrony of movement affected participants’ attitudes towards the observed person. Our findings suggest that the form of observed synchrony is an important factor in drawing inferences about individuals.

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          An argument for basic emotions

          Paul Ekman (1992)
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            Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior.

            This article describes a 2-systems model that explains social behavior as a joint function of reflective and impulsive processes. In particular, it is assumed that social behavior is controlled by 2 interacting systems that follow different operating principles. The reflective system generates behavioral decisions that are based on knowledge about facts and values, whereas the impulsive system elicits behavior through associative links and motivational orientations. The proposed model describes how the 2 systems interact at various stages of processing, and how their outputs may determine behavior in a synergistic or antagonistic fashion. It extends previous models by integrating motivational components that allow more precise predictions of behavior. The implications of this reflective-impulsive model are applied to various phenomena from social psychology and beyond. Extending previous dual-process accounts, this model is not limited to specific domains of mental functioning and attempts to integrate cognitive, motivational, and behavioral mechanisms.
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              A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation


                Author and article information

                Social Psychological Bulletin
                Social Psychological Bulletin
                28 December 2018
                : 13
                : 4
                : e26821
                [1 ] The Robert Zajonc Institute for Social Studies, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
                [2 ] Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
                [3 ] SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
                Author notes
                Corresponding author:

                Mikołaj Biesaga (The Robert Zajonc Institute for Social Studies, University of Warsaw, ul. Stawki 5/7, 00-183 Warsaw, Poland. E-mail: mbiesaga1987@ 123456gmail.com )

                Handling editor: Wiesław Baryła (SWPS University of Social Science and Humanities, Sopot, Poland)

                Mikołaj Biesaga, Paweł Motyka, Andrzej Nowak

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : 21 May 2018
                : 01 October 2018
                Research Article
                Social Cognition
                Social Psychology

                emotion recognition,social cognition,synchronization,attitude
                emotion recognition, social cognition, synchronization, attitude


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