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      Diarrhea in Under Five Year-old Children in Nepal: A Spatiotemporal Analysis Based on Demographic and Health Survey Data

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          Abstract

          Background: Diarrhea in children under five years of age remains a challenge in reducing child mortality in Nepal. Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns and influencing factors of the disease is important for control and intervention. Methods: Data regarding diarrhea prevalence and its potential influencing factors were extracted from the Demographic and Health Surveys in Nepal and other open-access databases. A Bayesian logistic regression model with district-specific spatio-temporal random effects was applied to explore the space and time patterns of diarrhea risk, as well as the relationships between the risk and the potential influencing factors. Results: Both the observed prevalence and the estimated spatiotemporal effects show a decreasing diarrhea risk trend from 2006 to 2016 in most districts of Nepal, with a few exceptions, such as Achham and Rasuwa. The disease risk decreased with mothers’ years of education ( OR 0.93, 95% Bayesian Credible Interval (BCI) 0.87, 0.997). Compared to spring, autumn and winter had lower risks of diarrhea. The risk firstly increased and then decreased with age and children under 12–24 months old were the highest risk group ( OR 1.20, 95% BCI 1.04, 1.38). Boys had higher risk than girls ( OR 1.24, 95% BCI 1.13, 1.39). Even though improved sanitation wasn’t found significant within a 95% BCI, there was 93.2% of chance of it being a protective factor. There were no obvious spatiotemporal clusters among districts and each district tended to have its own spatiotemporal diarrhea prevalence pattern. Conclusions: The important risk factors identified by our Bayesian spatial-temporal modeling provide insights for control and intervention on children diarrhea in Nepal. Special attention should be paid to high risk groups of children and high risk seasons, as well as districts with high risk or increased trend of risk. Effective actions should be implemented to improve sanitation and women’s education level. District-specific control planning is recommended for local governments for effective control of children diarrhea in Nepal.

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          Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low- and middle-income settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries

          Objective To estimate the burden of diarrhoeal diseases from exposure to inadequate water, sanitation and hand hygiene in low- and middle-income settings and provide an overview of the impact on other diseases. Methods For estimating the impact of water, sanitation and hygiene on diarrhoea, we selected exposure levels with both sufficient global exposure data and a matching exposure-risk relationship. Global exposure data were estimated for the year 2012, and risk estimates were taken from the most recent systematic analyses. We estimated attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) by country, age and sex for inadequate water, sanitation and hand hygiene separately, and as a cluster of risk factors. Uncertainty estimates were computed on the basis of uncertainty surrounding exposure estimates and relative risks. Results In 2012, 502 000 diarrhoea deaths were estimated to be caused by inadequate drinking water and 280 000 deaths by inadequate sanitation. The most likely estimate of disease burden from inadequate hand hygiene amounts to 297 000 deaths. In total, 842 000 diarrhoea deaths are estimated to be caused by this cluster of risk factors, which amounts to 1.5% of the total disease burden and 58% of diarrhoeal diseases. In children under 5 years old, 361 000 deaths could be prevented, representing 5.5% of deaths in that age group. Conclusions This estimate confirms the importance of improving water and sanitation in low- and middle-income settings for the prevention of diarrhoeal disease burden. It also underscores the need for better data on exposure and risk reductions that can be achieved with provision of reliable piped water, community sewage with treatment and hand hygiene.
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            Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea

            Background Ever since John Snow’s intervention on the Broad St pump, the effect of water quality, hygiene and sanitation in preventing diarrhoea deaths has always been debated. The evidence identified in previous reviews is of variable quality, and mostly relates to morbidity rather than mortality. Methods We drew on three systematic reviews, two of them for the Cochrane Collaboration, focussed on the effect of handwashing with soap on diarrhoea, of water quality improvement and of excreta disposal, respectively. The estimated effect on diarrhoea mortality was determined by applying the rules adopted for this supplement, where appropriate. Results The striking effect of handwashing with soap is consistent across various study designs and pathogens, though it depends on access to water. The effect of water treatment appears similarly large, but is not found in few blinded studies, suggesting that it may be partly due to the placebo effect. There is very little rigorous evidence for the health benefit of sanitation; four intervention studies were eventually identified, though they were all quasi-randomized, had morbidity as the outcome, and were in Chinese. Conclusion We propose diarrhoea risk reductions of 48, 17 and 36%, associated respectively, with handwashing with soap, improved water quality and excreta disposal as the estimates of effect for the LiST model. Most of the evidence is of poor quality. More trials are needed, but the evidence is nonetheless strong enough to support the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene for all.
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              Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea: systematic review and meta-analysis.

              To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the microbial quality of drinking water for preventing diarrhoea. Systematic review. Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group's trials register, CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, LILACS; hand searching; and correspondence with experts and relevant organisations. Randomised and quasirandomised controlled trials of interventions to improve the microbial quality of drinking water for preventing diarrhoea in adults and in children in settings with endemic disease. Allocation concealment, blinding, losses to follow-up, type of intervention, outcome measures, and measures of effect. Pooled effect estimates were calculated within the appropriate subgroups. 33 reports from 21 countries documenting 42 comparisons were included. Variations in design, setting, and type and point of intervention, and variations in defining, assessing, calculating, and reporting outcomes limited the comparability of study results and pooling of results by meta-analysis. In general, interventions to improve the microbial quality of drinking water are effective in preventing diarrhoea. Effectiveness was not conditioned on the presence of improved water supplies or sanitation in the study setting and was not enhanced by combining the intervention with instructions on basic hygiene, a water storage vessel, or improved sanitation or water supplies--other common environmental interventions intended to prevent diarrhoea. Interventions to improve water quality are generally effective for preventing diarrhoea in all ages and in under 5s. Significant heterogeneity among the trials suggests that the level of effectiveness may depend on a variety of conditions that research to date cannot fully explain.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                23 March 2020
                March 2020
                : 17
                : 6
                : 2140
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China; lirx6@ 123456mail2.sysu.edu.cn (R.L.); laiys3@ 123456mail.sysu.edu.cn (Y.L.); wangyj77@ 123456mail2.sysu.edu.cn (Y.W.)
                [2 ]Sun Yat-sen Global Health Institute, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China; Rubee@ 123456mail.sysu.edu.cn
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: haoyt@ 123456mail.sysu.edu.cn
                [†]

                Ruixue Li and Yingsi Lai contributed equally to this article.

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8024-5312
                Article
                ijerph-17-02140
                10.3390/ijerph17062140
                7142451
                32210171
                a6139c25-4b9d-4103-a220-d38fce7ebffb
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 29 February 2020
                : 20 March 2020
                Categories
                Article

                Public health
                diarrhea,spatiotemporal analysis,child,influencing factor
                Public health
                diarrhea, spatiotemporal analysis, child, influencing factor

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